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1.
A new method of total RNA isolation by a single extraction with an acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform mixture is described. The method provides a pure preparation of undegraded RNA in high yield and can be completed within 4 h. It is particularly useful for processing large numbers of samples and for isolation of RNA from minute quantities of cells or tissue samples.  相似文献
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The definition of the genetic linkage map of human chromosomes may be helpful in the analysis of cancer-specific chromosome abnormalities. In the translocation (8;21)(q22;q22), a nonrandom cytogenetic abnormality of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), we previously observed the transposition of the ETS2 gene located at the 21q22 region from chromosome 21 to chromosome 8. However, no ETS2 rearrangements were detected in the DNA of t(8;21)-positive AML cells. Genetic linkage analysis has allowed us to locate the ETS2 gene relative to other loci and to establish that the breakpoint is at an approximate genetic distance of 17 cM from ETS2. When the information from the linkage map is combined with that from molecular studies, it is apparent that (a) the t(8;21) breakpoint does not affect the ETS2 gene structure or the structure of the other four loci proximal to ETS2: D21S55, D21S57, D21S17, and ERG, and ETS-related gene; and (b) the actual DNA sequence involved in the t(8;21) must reside in a 3-cM genetic region between the D21S58 and the D21S55/D21S57 loci, and remains to be identified.  相似文献
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The ability to survive in hypertonic media varies markedly among different cell strains. This property was exploited to set up a selection procedure to isolate cell hybrids, in cell fusion experiments. The results of a cross between two EUE sublines, with a differential sensitivity to hypertonicity, are discussed.  相似文献
6.
Human fibroblasts with a genetic deficiency of a single lysosomal enzyme and fibroblasts from a patient with ‘I-cell’ disease with a multiple deficiency of lysosomal hydrolases were used as recipient cells in studies on recognition and uptake of β-N-acetylhexosaminidase (hexosaminidase), β-glucuronidase and β-galactosidase. Normal human fibroblasts, and fibroblasts, hepatocytes and hepatoma cells from the rat were used as donor cells. The release of hexosaminidase was found to be similar among these different cell types, but the extracellular activities of β-glucuronidase and β-galactosidase were much higher in the rat cell cultures than in cultures of normal human fibroblasts. The enzymes released by rat fibroblasts were ingested by deficient human fibroblasts; enzyme from normal human fibroblasts was shown to be taken up by rat fibroblasts by means of electrophoresis. This indicates that reciprocal transfer of lysosomal hydrolases occurs between human and rat fibroblasts. Rat hepatocytes released hydrolases that were poorly taken up by human recipient fibroblasts and uptake of human fibroblast enzyme was not detected in the hepatocytes. Rat hepatoma cells, on the other hand, released lysosomal enzymes that were taken up by human deficient cells with a higher efficiency than those from fibroblasts. The uptake was subject to competitive inhibition by mannose 6-phosphate, the kinetics of which were comparable with those reported for ‘high-uptake’ forms of lysosomal enzymes [1–2]. Electrophoretic studies showed that rat hepatoma cells were not only capable of ingesting hexosaminidase from normal human fibroblasts, but also defectively processed enzyme [4–5] released by ‘I-cells’. These findings make rat hepatoma cells a useful model for the study of recognition and uptake of lysosomal enzymes.  相似文献
7.
V Rizzo  N Sacchi  M Menozzi 《Biochemistry》1989,28(1):274-282
The kinetics of association and dissociation between calf thymus DNA and five anthracyclines, including doxorubicin, daunorubicin, and three synthetic analogues, were investigated with stopped flow using fluorescence detection. The sensitivity of this technique allowed us to work with submicromolar drug concentrations, thus excluding formation of aggregates, and with ratios of DNA base pairs to drug in the range 10-250, where site exclusion effects could be taken into account with a simple correction of DNA concentration and pseudo-first-order conditions were nearly fulfilled. In all cases, both association and dissociation reactions required a sum of three exponential terms to be fitted. However, satisfactory interpretation of reciprocal relaxation times as functions of DNA concentration was only achieved with kinetic models comprising a total of five steps. One of the extra steps was tentatively assigned to formation of a weakly bound, probably nonintercalated species. Another step was deduced from a comparison between results of association and dissociation experiments. The five steps are arranged, for convenience, in an association mechanism with two branches, though other mechanisms cannot be definitely ruled out. Correlation of cytotoxicity data with both association and dissociation rates is not found to be significant. This suggests that other factors must be involved in modulating the different biological properties of the investigated anthracyclines.  相似文献
8.
The equilibrium and kinetic aspects of the interaction between four anthracyclines and two synthetic self-complementary hexanucleotides was investigated by fluorescence detection. Two of the studied anthracyclines are widely used antitumor drugs: doxorubicin (1, formerly adriamycin) and daunorubicin (2, formerly daunomycin). The other two, 9-deoxydoxorubicin (3) and 3'-deamino-3'-hydroxy-4'-epidoxorubicin (4), are doxorubicin analogues with modifications of the chemical groups that have been proposed as responsible for sequence specificity (Chen, K.-X., Gresh, N. and Pullman, B. (1985). J. Biomol. Struct. Dyn. 3, 445-466). One of the oligonucleotides, d(CGTACG), is identical to that used in the high resolution x-ray structure determination of the daunorubicin intercalative complex (Wang, A. H.-J., Ughetto, G., Quigley, G. J. & Rich, A. (1987). Biochemistry 26, 1152-1163). Binding to this hexanucleotide is compared with intercalation into the d(CGCGCG) duplex, revealing sequence preferences of the four anthracyclines. Taking into account the anthracycline aggregation and the dissociation of the hexanucleotide double standard form, results can be interpreted with a model that assumes complete fluorescence quenching at intercalative sites containing the CG base pair, and a large residual fluorescence after intercalation within the TpA fragment. All four anthracyclines show preferential intercalation at sites near the ends of both hexanucleotide duplexes, partly as a result of positive cooperativity in the formation of di-intercalated species at these sites. Within the limits of experimental error, complete site specificity for the CpG fragment is found in the intercalation of 1 and 2 into d(CGTACG) duplex, whereas analogues 3 and 4 give increasing evidence of intercalation at other sites including the fluorescence-preserving TpA fragment. Site specificity is less pronounced in the association with d(CGCGCG), when cooperativity is taken into account. Kinetic data corroborate the results of equilibrium studies and are interpreted with a mechanism that includes formation of an intermediate bound species followed by drug redistribution to preferential sites. Finally, from a comparison of pertinent site binding constants, approximate free energy contributions to sequence specific DNA interaction, due to C9-OH on the aglycone and -NH3+ on daunosamine, are estimated not to exceed 2 kcal/mol.  相似文献
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The human leukemic T cell line 8402, which contains terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) and phenotypically resembles precursor thymocytes, when exposed to the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) undergoes in vitro T maturation. TdT disappears from virtually all the cells and a fraction of TdT- -cells express specific T surface markers, such as the T3 determinant. Like T lymphocytes from the thymus, 8402 cells are extremely sensitive to the cytotoxic effect of deoxyguanosine (dGuo). As a consequence of TPA treatment, resistance to dGuo is observed in 8402, as well as in two other TdT+ lymphoid T cell lines, Molt-4 and CEM-10. These results suggest the occurrence of changes in deoxynucleoside metabolism in TPA-treated cells related to the in vitro maturation process. Maturation of 8402 cells, once started, progresses in the presence of additional physiologic stimuli provided by conditioned medium from lymphocyte culture, because a portion of cells display the T8+/T4- phenotype characteristic of cytotoxic/suppressor T cells. This in vitro lymphoid system may thus be used to study the relationships of molecular differentiation between precursor thymocytes and cytotoxic/suppressor T cells.  相似文献
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