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1.
Two new mAbs (M/K-1 and M/K-2) define an adhesion molecule expressed on stromal cell clones derived from murine bone marrow. The protein is similar in size to a human endothelial cell adhesion molecule known as VCAM-1 or INCAM110. VCAM-1 is expressed on endothelial cells in inflammatory sites and recognized by the integrin VLA-4 expressed on lymphocytes and monocytes. The new stromal cell molecule is a candidate ligand for the VLA-4 expressed on immature B lineage lymphocytes and a possible homologue of human VCAM-1. We now report additional similarities in the distribution, structure, and function of these proteins. The M/K antibodies detected large cells in normal bone marrow, as well as rare cells in other tissues. The antigen was constitutively expressed and functioned as a cell adhesion molecule on cultured murine endothelial cells. It correlated with the presence of mRNA which hybridized to a human VCAM-1 cDNA probe. Partial NH2 terminal amino acid sequencing of the murine protein revealed similarities to VCAM-1 and attachment of human lymphoma cells to murine endothelial cell lines was inhibited by the M/K antibodies. All of these observations suggest that the murine and human cell adhesion proteins may be related. The antibodies selectively interfered with B lymphocyte formation when included in long term bone marrow cultures. Moreover, they caused rapid detachment of lymphocytes from the adherent layer when added to preestablished cultures. The VCAM-like cell adhesion molecule on stromal cells and VLA-4 on lymphocyte precursors may both be important for B lymphocyte formation.  相似文献
2.
Monocytes/macrophages exposed to LPS show reduced responses to second stimulation with LPS, which is termed LPS tolerance. In this study, we investigated molecular mechanism of LPS tolerance in macrophages. Mouse peritoneal macrophages pre-exposed to LPS exhibited reduced production of inflammatory cytokines in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Activation of neither IL-1 receptor-associated kinase nor NF-kappaB was observed in macrophages that became tolerant by LPS pretreatment, indicating that the proximal event in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-MyD88-dependent signaling is affected in tolerant macrophages. Although TLR4 mRNA expression significantly decreased within a few hours of LPS pretreatment and returned to the original level at 24 h, the surface TLR4 expression began to decrease within 1 h, with a gradual decrease after that, and remained suppressed over 24 h. A decrease in inflammatory cytokine production in tolerant macrophages well correlates with down-regulation of the surface TLR4 expression, which may explain one of the mechanisms for LPS tolerance.  相似文献
3.
The human MD-2 molecule is associated with the extracellular domain of human Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and greatly enhances its LPS signaling. The human TLR4-MD-2 complex thus signals the presence of LPS. Little is known, however, about cell surface expression and LPS signaling of the TLR4-MD-2 complex in vivo. We cloned mouse MD-2 molecularly and established a unique mAb MTS510, which reacted selectively with mouse TLR4-MD-2 but not with TLR4 alone in flow cytometry. Mouse MD-2 expression in TLR4-expressing cells enhanced LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation, which was clearly inhibited by MTS510. Thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages expressed TLR4-MD-2, which was rapidly down-regulated in the presence of LPS. Moreover, LPS-induced TNF-alpha production by peritoneal macrophages was inhibited by MTS510. Collectively, the TLR4-MD-2 complex is expressed on macrophages in vivo and senses and signals the presence of LPS.  相似文献
4.
The fluorescent compounds rhodamine 123, LysoTracker Green DMD-26, mitoxantrone, and BODIPY-prazosin were used with the antagonist fumitremorgin C (FTC) in order to develop functional assays for the half-transporter, MXR/BCRP/ABCP1. A measure of FTC-inhibitable efflux was generated for each compound in a series of MXR-overexpressing drug-selected cell lines and in ten unselected cell lines which were used to determine if the four fluorescent compounds were sensitive enough to detect the low MXR levels found in drug-sensitive cell lines. FTC-inhibitable efflux of mitoxantrone and prazosin was found in four of the ten cell lines, SF295, KM12, NCI-H460, and A549, and low but detectable levels of MXR mRNA were also observed by Northern analysis in these cells. FTC-inhibitable mitoxantrone and prazosin efflux in both selected and unselected cell lines was found to correlate well with MXR levels as determined by Northern blotting, r(2)=0.89 and r(2)=0.70 respectively. In contrast, rhodamine and LysoTracker were not able to reliably detect MXR. Cytotoxicity assays performed on two of the four unselected cell lines confirmed increased sensitivity to mitoxantrone in the presence of FTC. FTC was found to be a specific inhibitor of MXR, with half-maximal inhibition of MXR-associated ATPase activity at 1 microM FTC. Short term selections of the SF295, KM12, NCI-H460 and A549 cell lines in mitoxantrone resulted in a small but measurable increase in MXR by both Northern blot and functional assay. These studies show that flow cytometric measurement of FTC-inhibitable mitoxantrone or prazosin efflux is a sensitive and specific method for measuring the function of the MXR half-transporter in both selected and unselected cell lines.  相似文献
5.
Taxol, an antitumor agent derived from a plant, mimics the action of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice but not in humans. Although Taxol is structurally unrelated to LPS, Taxol and LPS are presumed to share a receptor or signaling molecule. The LPS-mimetic activity of Taxol is not observed in LPS-hyporesponsive C3H/HeJ mice, which possess a point mutation in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4); therefore, TLR4 appears to be involved in both Taxol and LPS signaling. In addition, TLR4 was recently shown to physically associate with MD-2, a molecule that confers LPS responsiveness on TLR4. To determine whether TLR4.MD-2 complex mediates a Taxol-induced signal, we constructed transformants of the mouse pro-B cell line, Ba/F3, expressing mouse TLR4 alone, both mouse TLR4 and mouse MD-2, and both mouse MD-2 and mouse TLR4 lacking the cytoplasmic portion, and then examined whether Taxol induced NFkappaB activation in these transfectants. Noticeable NFkappaB activation by Taxol was detected in Ba/F3 expressing mouse TLR4 and mouse MD-2 but not in the other transfectants. Coexpression of human TLR4 and human MD-2 did not confer Taxol responsiveness on Ba/F3 cells, suggesting that the TLR4. MD-2 complex is responsible for the species specificity with respect to Taxol responsiveness. Furthermore, Taxol-induced NFkappaB activation via TLR4.MD-2 was blocked by an LPS antagonist that blocks LPS-induced NFkappaB activation via TLR4.MD-2. These results demonstrated that coexpression of mouse TLR4 and mouse MD-2 is required for Taxol responsiveness and that the TLR4.MD-2 complex is the shared molecule in Taxol and LPS signal transduction in mice.  相似文献
6.
MD-2 is associated with Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on the cell surface and enables TLR4 to respond to LPS. We tested whether MD-2 enhances or enables the responses of both TLR2 and TLR4 to Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and their components. TLR2 without MD-2 did not efficiently respond to highly purified LPS and LPS partial structures. MD-2 enabled TLR2 to respond to nonactivating protein-free LPS, LPS mutants, or lipid A and enhanced TLR2-mediated responses to both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and their LPS, peptidoglycan, and lipoteichoic acid components. MD-2 enabled TLR4 to respond to a wide variety of LPS partial structures, Gram-negative bacteria, and Gram-positive lipoteichoic acid, but not to Gram-positive bacteria, peptidoglycan, and lipopeptide. MD-2 physically associated with TLR2, but this association was weaker than with TLR4. MD-2 enhanced expression of both TLR2 and TLR4, and TLR2 and TLR4 enhanced expression of MD-2. Thus, MD-2 enables both TLR4 and TLR2 to respond with high sensitivity to a broad range of LPS structures and to lipoteichoic acid, and, moreover, MD-2 enhances the responses of TLR2 to Gram-positive bacteria and peptidoglycan, to which the TLR4-MD-2 complex is unresponsive.  相似文献
7.
Gene expression profiles were analyzed by using cDNA microarray for a cisplatin-sensitive cell line (KF), and three- and thirty-fold cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines (KFr and KFrP200) both showing no p53 mutation within exon 5, 6, 7, 8 and no pglycoprotein overexpression. Expression of GST-pi mRNA increased as the level of resistance to cisplatin became high. Microarray analysis revealed that DNA repair associated genes, i.e., XRCC5, XRCC6, ERCC5, hMLH1 were over-expressed in three-fold cisplatin-resistant cell line, KFr as compared to cisplatin-sensitive parental cell line, KF. Apoptosis inhibitors, i.e., IGFR type I and II were over-expressed, and apoptosis inducer, i.e., caspase 3 and BAK were underexpressed in highly cisplatin-resistant cell line, KFrP200 as compared to KFr. As for clinical cases, cDNA microarray was used to compare gene expression profiles directly between two groups, i.e., the chemotherapy (CAP) sensitive group (n = 2) and the resistant group (n = 2). Six genes such as beta tubulin, high-mobility group (nonhistone chromosomal) protein 1, connective tissue growth factor, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2, alpha tubulin, and RAS-related gene were overexpressed in CAP therapy resistance group, whereas seven genes such as CD9 antigen, alpha-2-macroglobulin, caveolin 2, interleukin 1 receptor antagonist, Rho GTPase activating protein 1, reticulon 3, cyclin-dependent kinase 10, keratin 7 were underexpressed in CAP therapy resistance group. By increasing clinical case number and gene number of microarray to be used in the analysis of expression profile of gene cluster affecting anticancer drug resistance and sensitivity of the ovarian cancer, it would be possible to apply microarray analysis to personalization of chemotherapy such as selection of effective chemotherapy protocol and prediction of therapeutic effect in the near future.  相似文献
8.
Mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are required for cell activation by bacterial lipoproteins (bLP) and LPS. Stimulation of monocytes with bLP and LPS results in a TLR-dependent induction of immunomodulatory genes leading to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this paper, we compared the expression and response of TLRs on monocytes and dendritic cells (DC). TLR2, but not TLR4, was detected on peripheral blood monocytes and DC, in lymphoid tissue CD1alpha+ DC as well as on in vitro monocyte-derived DC. Upon stimulation with bLP or LPS, monocytes produced IL-12 and IL-10 at similar levels, whereas monocyte-derived DC produced comparable levels of IL-12, but little IL-10. Greater than 90% of the bLP-induced production of IL-12 was blocked by anti-TLR2 mAb. Thus, DC express TLR2 and activation of this receptor by bLP provides an innate mechanism by which microbial pathogens preferentially activate cell-mediated immunity.  相似文献
9.
The complex consisting of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and associated MD-2 signals the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) when it is expressed in cell lines. We here show that normal human mononuclear cells express TLR4 and signal LPS via TLR4. CD14 is a molecule that binds to LPS and facilitates its signaling. Little is known, however, about the relationship of CD14 with TLR4-MD-2. We show that CD14 helps TLR4-MD-2 to sense and signal the presence of LPS. CD14 has also been implicated in recognition of apoptotic cells, which leads to phagocytosis without activation. Membrane phospholipids such as phosphatidylserine (PS) or phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) are thought to serve as the ligands for CD14 in apoptotic cells. We find that PtdIns acts as an LPS antagonist in the signaling via TLR4-MD-2. TLR4-MD-2 seems to discriminate LPS from phospholipids. The signaling via TLR4-MD-2 is thus regulated by CD14 and phospholipid such as PtdIns.  相似文献
10.
The structures of the termini and their flanking regions of two human KpnI family members were investigated. The two differed in length, but the starting sequence at one terminal (defined as the 5' terminal) was found to be common to both members. The Alu family sequence was found in the 5' flanking regions. The KpnI family sequence started several base-pairs downstream from the 3' end of the Alu family sequence. In both cases, the Alu family sequence was not flanked by the direct repeat sequence common to the Alu family. These two members showed no sequence homology in 3' terminal regions. Interestingly, the Alu family plus the KpnI family unit was found to be flanked by a direct repeat sequence of several base-pair length. Based on these findings, relationship between the Alu family and KpnI family is discussed.  相似文献
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