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Plant innate immunity is mediated by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and intracellular NB-LRR (nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat) proteins. Overexpression of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone, luminal-binding protein 3 (BiP3) compromises resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) mediated by the rice PRR XA21 [12]. Here we show that BiP3 overexpression also compromises resistance mediated by rice XA3, a PRR that provides broad-spectrum resistance to Xoo. In contrast, BiP3 overexpression has no effect on resistance mediated by rice Pi5, an NB-LRR protein that confers resistance to the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae). Our results suggest that rice BiP3 regulates membrane-resident PRR-mediated immunity.  相似文献
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Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5), a member of atypical serine/threonine cyclin-dependent kinase family, plays a crucial role in pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders. Its kinase activity and substrate specificity are regulated by several independent pathways including binding with its activator, phosphorylation and S-nitrosylation. In the present study, we report that acetylation of CDK5 comprises an additional posttranslational modification within the cells. Among many candidates, we confirmed that its acetylation is enhanced by GCN5, a member of the GCN5-related N-acetyl-transferase family of histone acetyltransferase. Co-immunoprecipitation assay and fluorescent localization study indicated that GCN5 physically interacts with CDK5 and they are co-localized at the specific nuclear foci. Furthermore, liquid chromatography in conjunction with a mass spectrometry indicated that CDK5 is acetylated at Lys33 residue of ATP binding domain. Considering this lysine site is conserved among a wide range of species and other related cyclin-dependent kinases, therefore, we speculate that acetylation may alter the kinase activity of CDK5 via affecting efficacy of ATP coordination.  相似文献
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Allelic variation in gene expression is common in humans and this variation is associated with phenotypic variation. In this study, we employed high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips containing 13,900 exonic SNPs to identify genes with allelic gene expression in cells from colorectal cancer cell lines. We found 2 monoallelically expressed genes (ERAP2 and MYLK4), 32 genes with an allelic imbalance in their expression, and 13 genes showing allele substitution by RNA editing. Among a total of 34 allelically expressed genes in colorectal cancer cells, 15 genes (44.1%) were associated with cis-acting eQTL, indicating that large portions of allelically expressed genes are regulated by cis-acting mechanisms of gene expression. In addition, potential regulatory variants present in the proximal promoter regions of genes showing either monoallelic expression or allelic imbalance were not tightly linked with coding SNPs, which were detected with allelic gene expression. These results suggest that multiple rare variants could be involved in the cis-acting regulatory mechanism of allelic gene expression. In the comparison with allelic gene expression data from Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) family B cells, 12 genes showed B-cell specific allelic imbalance and 1 noncoding SNP showed colorectal cancer cell-specific allelic imbalance. In addition, different patterns of allele substitution were observed between B cells and colorectal cancer cells. Overall, our study not only indicates that allelic gene expression is common in colorectal cancer cells, but our study also provides a better understanding of allele-specific gene expression in colorectal cancer cells.  相似文献
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The required for Mla12 resistance (RAR1) protein is essential for the plant immune response. In rice, a model monocot species, the function of Oryza sativa RAR1 (OsRAR1) has been little explored. In our current study, we characterized the response of a rice osrar1 T-DNA insertion mutant to infection by Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal agent of rice blast disease. osrar1 mutants displayed reduced resistance compared with wild type rice when inoculated with the normally virulent M. oryzae isolate PO6-6, indicating that OsRAR1 is required for an immune response to this pathogen. We also investigated the function of OsRAR1 in the resistance mechanism mediated by the immune receptor genes Pib and Pi5 that encode nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat (NB-LRR) proteins. We inoculated progeny from Pib/osrar1 and Pi5/osrar1 heterozygous plants with the avirulent M. oryzae isolates, race 007 and PO6-6, respectively. We found that only Pib-mediated resistance was compromised by the osrar1 mutation and that the introduction of the OsRAR1 cDNA into Pib/osrar1 rescued Pib-mediated resistance. These results indicate that OsRAR1 is required for Pib-mediated resistance but not Pi5-mediated resistance to M. oryzae.  相似文献
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HE Kim  DG Kim  KJ Lee  JG Son  MY Song  YM Park  JJ Kim  SW Cho  SG Chi  HS Cheong  HD Shin  SW Lee  JK Lee 《PloS one》2012,7(8):e43223
Genomic changes frequently occur in cancer cells during tumorigenesis from normal cells. Using the Illumina Human NS-12 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip to screen for gene copy number changes in primary hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), we initially detected amplification of 35 genes from four genomic regions (1q21-41, 6p21.2-24.1, 7p13 and 8q13-23). By integrated screening of these genes for both DNA copy number and gene expression in HCC and colorectal cancer, we selected CENPF (centromere protein F/mitosin), GMNN (geminin, DNA replication inhibitor), CDK13 (cyclin-dependent kinase 13), and FAM82B (family with sequence similarity 82, member B) as common cancer genes. Each gene exhibited an amplification frequency of ~30% (range, 20-50%) in primary HCC (n?=?57) and colorectal cancer (n?=?12), as well as in a panel of human cancer cell lines (n?=?70). Clonogenic and invasion assays of NIH3T3 cells transfected with each of the four amplified genes showed that CENPF, GMNN, and CDK13 were highly oncogenic whereas FAM82B was not. Interestingly, the oncogenic activity of these genes (excluding FAM82B) was highly correlated with gene-copy numbers in tumor samples (correlation coefficient, r>0.423), indicating that amplifications of CENPF, GMNN, and CDK13 genes are tightly linked and coincident in tumors. Furthermore, we confirmed that CDK13 gene copy number was significantly associated with clinical onset age in patients with HCC (P?=?0.0037). Taken together, our results suggest that coincidently amplified CDK13, GMNN, and CENPF genes can play a role as common cancer-driver genes in human cancers.  相似文献
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To identify genes involved in rice Pi5-mediated disease resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae, we compared the proteomes of the RIL260 rice strain carrying the Pi5 resistance gene with its susceptible mutants M5465 and M7023. Proteins were extracted from the leaf tissues of both RIL260 and the mutant lines at 0, 24, and 48 h after M. oryzae inoculation and separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis identified eight proteins that were differently expressed between the resistant and susceptible plants (three down- and five up-regulated proteins in the mutants). The down-regulated proteins included a triosephosphate isomerase (spot no. 2210), a 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglycerate mutase (no. 3611), and an unknown protein (no. 4505). In addition, the five up-regulated proteins in the mutants were predicted to be a fructokinase I (no. 313), a glutathione S-transferase (no. 2310), an atpB of chloroplast ATP synthase (no. 3616), an aminopeptidase N (no. 3724), and an unknown protein (no. 308). These results suggest that proteomic analysis of rice susceptible mutants is a useful method for identifying novel proteins involved in resistance to the M. oryzae pathogen.  相似文献
8.
The HSP90 (heat shock protein 90), SGT1 (suppressor of G-two allele ofSkp1), and RAR1 (required forMla12 resistance) proteins in plants form a molecular chaperone complex which is involved in diverse biological signaling including development and disease resistance. The three components of this complex interact via specific protein binding motifs and recruit client proteins to initiate a specific signaling cascade in response to cellular or environmental cues. Although the functions of this chaperone complex during development/growth have not been well characterized, the HSP90 chaperone and SGT1 and RAR1 co-chaperones have been demonstrated to be essential signaling components of plant immune responses. These three proteins also play important roles in activation of the mammalian Nod genes, which possess a structurally conserved plant resistance (R) protein motif, NB-LRR (nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat). In this review, we summarize the structures and functions of these molecular chaperones, and discuss their putative modes of action in plant immune responses.  相似文献
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