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Using four-leaf tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) as a model system, we examined the spatial distribution of damage-induced changes in foliar protein activities. Terminal leaflets of third leaves of tomato plants were subjected to one of four types of damage, and the activities of four putative defenses — polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, lipoxygenase, and proteinase inhibitors — were determined at four leaflet positions relative to the damaged leaflet. Multiple proteins were differentially induced by the different damage types. For a given damage type, the spatial pattern of induction was different for different proteins. More exhaustive spatial mapping of the polyphenol oxidase response to feeding by Helicoverpa zea Boddie revealed that damaged plants were more variable, both within and between plants, in the activity of this enzyme than undamaged plants. The spatial patterns of induction of these four putative defenses throughout the plant suggest that the induced plant is chemically heterogeneous and that different mechanisms of defense operate in different regions of the plant. These data are critical to an elucidation of cause-effect relationships between induced chemicals and induced resistance in tomato foliage. In addition, these data suggest that induction functions, in part, to increase chemical variation in tomato plants; the potential role of phytochemical variation in plant defense is discussed.  相似文献
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Elicitors and inhibitors of chemical induction were used to manipulate the activities of several putative defense-related proteins in leaves of the tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. The four presumptive defenses manipulated were proteinase inhibitors, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, and lipoxygenase. The elicitors used were jasmonic acid, methyl jasmonate, ultraviolet light, and feeding by larvae of the noctuid, Helicoverpa zea Boddie; the inhibitors used were salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid. These chemical manipulations were combined with short-term growth assays using larvae of the generalist noctuid, Spodoptera exigua Hubner, in order to assess the relative roles of the proteins in induced resistance to S. exigua. When activities of proteinase inhibitors and/or polyphenol oxidase in leaf tissue were high (e.g., in damaged or elicited plants), growth rates of larvae of S. exigua were low; when activities of polyphenol oxidase and proteinase inhibitors were low (e.g., in undamaged or damaged, inhibited plants), growth rates of larvae were high. In contrast, high activities of peroxidase and lipoxygenase were not associated with decreases in suitability of leaf tissue for S. exigua. The association of high levels of proteinase inhibitors and polyphenol oxidase with resistance to S. exigua – irrespective of the presence or absence of damage – strongly implicates these proteins as causal agents in induced resistance to S. exigua.  相似文献
4.
Greenhouse studies were conducted to investigate plant-mediated interactions between an above-ground and a below-ground herbivore when sharing a common host plant, rice (Oryza sativa L). Two common pests of rice were used: the rice water weevil (RWW), Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, as the root herbivore, and the fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) as the foliage-feeding herbivore. Rice water weevil larval performance was assessed by measuring larval density and average weight in response to different levels of defoliation by FAW larvae. The reciprocal experiment was done to evaluate FAW performance (growth rate) in response to RWW feeding. Severe defoliation by FAW decreased RWW densities by 32% and reduced larval weights by 48% compared to larvae on roots of non-defoliated plants. Effects in the converse experiments were not as strong. FAW growth rates were reduced 9–37% when feeding on rice leaves from plants damaged by RWW compared to larvae feed leaves from the no damage treatment. These reciprocal negative effects show that RWW and FAW are potential competitors when sharing a rice plant. Because RWW and FAW did not interact directly, competition was plant-mediated.  相似文献
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We have characterized, using several types of bioassays, the resistance induced in young tomato plants by feeding of the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea. Beet armyworm larvae, Spodoptera exigua, and leafminers, Liriomyza trifolii, were used to assay the induced resistance. In whole-plant experiments, damage localized to a single leaflet of fourleaf tomato plants induced a systemic increase in resistance such that beet armyworm larvae confined to previously damaged (induced) plants grew at a rate about half that of larvae raised on control plants and consumed less leaf tissue from induced plants than from control plants. In experiments using excised leaves, beet armyworm larvae suffered increased mortality when reared on leaves from induced plants. The strength of this induced resistance varied spatially relative to the damaged position; moreover, the spatial distribution of induced resistance changed over a three-week period following damage. Other experiments demonstrated that the mechanisms of induced resistance in tomato foliage involves both a decrease in larval preference for and a decrease in the nutritional value of induced foliage. Induction also retarded the oviposition and/or early development of leafminers. Thus, induced resistance has relatively severe effects on the biology of subsequent herbivores. These data should allow us to begin to elucidate cause-effect relationships between induced resistance and induced chemistry in tomato plants.  相似文献
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Damage to foliage of the tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum, causes the induction of proteinase inhibitors and of the oxidative enzymes polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, and lipoxygenase. The time courses of induction of these proteins by feeding of two caterpillar species (Manduca sexta and Helicoverpa zea) were studied in a series of experiments. In another series of experiments, the effects of plant age on the inducibility of these proteins were studied. In the time course experiments, induction of proteinase inhibitors and oxidative enzymes in the damaged leaflet was rapid, with higher protein activities evident in damaged leaflets within 12–24 h of damage, depending on the enzyme and the species of insect used to damage the plant. Systemic induction of proteinase inhibitors was also rapid, but systemic induction of polyphenol oxidase was delayed relative to systemic induction of proteinase inhibitors, possibly because high constitutive polyphenol oxidase activities obscured expression of systemic induction at earlier time points. Lipoxygenase and peroxidase were not induced systemically. Induction of all proteins persisted for at least 21 days. In the phenology experiments, inducibility of all proteins decreased in magnitude and was less consistent as plants aged. The results of these experiments exemplify the numerous constraints on induction in tomato plants. Knowledge of these physiological constraints is important to an understanding of the ecological role and causal basis of induced resistance.  相似文献
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Specificity in the induced responses of tomato foliage to arthropod herbivores was investigated. We distinguished between two aspects of specificity: specificity of effect (the range of organisms affected by a given induced response), and specificity of elicitation (ability of the plant to generate distinct chemical responses to different damage types). Specificity of effect was investigated by examining the effect of restricted feeding by Helicoverpa zea on the resistance of tomato plants to an aphid species (Macrosiphum euphorbiae), a mite species (Tetranychus urticae), a noctuid species (Spodoptera exigua), and to a phytopathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Prior H. zea feeding was found to increase the resistance of tomato plants to all four organisms. Specificity in elicitation was investigated by examining the effect of aphid feeding on the activities of four defense-related proteins and on the suitability of foliage for S. exigua. Aphid feeding was found to induce peroxidase and lipoxygenase activities but not polyphenol oxidase and proteinase inhibitor activities; this response is distinct from the response to H. zea feeding, which induces polyphenol oxidase and proteinase inhibitors but not peroxidase. Leaflets which had been fed upon by aphids were better sources of food for S. exigua than were leaflets which had not been fed upon by aphids. Studies of both these aspects of specificity are needed to understand the way in which plants coordinate and integrate induced responses against insects with other physiological processes. Received: 20 December 1996 / Accepted: 2 July 1997  相似文献
9.
Cosme M  Stout MJ  Wurst S 《Mycorrhiza》2011,21(7):651-658
Root-feeding insects are important drivers in ecosystems, and links between aboveground oviposition preference and belowground larval performance have been suggested. The root-colonizing arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play a central role in plant nutrition and are known to change host quality for root-feeding insects. However, it is not known if and how AMF affect the aboveground oviposition of insects whose offspring feed on roots. According to the preference–performance hypothesis, insect herbivores oviposit on plants that will maximize offspring performance. In a greenhouse experiment with rice (Oryza sativa), we investigated the effects of AMF (Glomus intraradices) on aboveground oviposition of rice water weevil (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus), the larvae of which feed belowground on the roots. Oviposition (i.e., the numbers of eggs laid by weevil females in leaf sheaths) was enhanced when the plants were colonized by AMF. However, the leaf area consumed by adult weevils was not affected. Although AMF reduced plant biomass, it increased nitrogen (N) and phosphorus concentrations in leaves and N in roots. The results suggest that rice water weevil females are able to discriminate plants for oviposition depending on their mycorrhizal status. The discrimination is probably related to AMF-mediated changes in plant quality, i.e., the females choose to oviposit more on plants with higher nutrient concentrations to potentially optimize offspring performance. AMF-mediated change in plant host choice for chewing insect oviposition is a novel aspect of below- and aboveground interactions.  相似文献
10.
Soybean looper, Chrysodeixis includens (Walker), is one of the most destructive pests of soybean in the southern U.S. Soybean looper defoliation exceeding 20% from R3 (pod initiation) to R5 (pod fill) can result in significant yield loss. In addition, soybean looper is highly resistant to many insecticides. An alternative to insecticide control is induced host plant resistance. In this study, a total of four experiments over 2 years were conducted in which three different elicitors of SAR (systemic acquired resistance), Actigard 50WG (acibenzolar-S-methyl), Regalia (extract of Reynoutria sachalinensis), and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), were applied to soybean at different plant stages to determine if these chemicals could induce plant resistance and lower soybean looper fitness. None of the elicitors of SAR significantly affected soybean looper mortality. However, Actigard 50WG, MeJA, and Regalia had adverse effects on developmental time, defoliation, and pupal weight of soybean looper. Induced effects by Regalia on soybean looper were very limited compared to Actigard 50WG and MeJA. A single application of MeJA reduced pupal weight by 6.8% and delayed larval development by 14.3%. Soybean seed production was not affected by application of elicitors. In conclusion, the results suggest that exogenous elicitors applied in the field can trigger plant resistance against herbivores and this low level of host plant resistance may effectively lessen pest pressure by favoring natural enemy population regulation without reducing seed production.  相似文献
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