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1.
We have discovered an unusual homeodomain protein, called HOP, which is comprised simply of a homeodomain. HOP is highly expressed in the developing heart where its expression is dependent on the cardiac-restricted homeodomain protein Nkx2.5. HOP does not bind DNA and acts as an antagonist of serum response factor (SRF), which regulates the opposing processes of proliferation and myogenesis. Mice homozygous for a HOP null allele segregate into two phenotypic classes characterized by an excess or deficiency of cardiac myocytes. We propose that HOP modulates SRF activity during heart development; its absence results in an imbalance between cardiomyocyte proliferation and differentiation with consequent abnormalities in cardiac morphogenesis.  相似文献
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The synthesis of ribosomal proteins (r proteins) under the conditions of greatly reduced RNA synthesis were studied by using a strain of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in which the production of the largest subunit (RPA190) of RNA polymerase I was controlled by the galactose promoter. Although growth on galactose medium was normal, the strain was unable to sustain growth when shifted to glucose medium. This growth defect was shown to be due to a preferential decrease in RNA synthesis caused by deprivation of RNA polymerase I. Under these conditions, the accumulation of r proteins decreased to match the rRNA synthesis rate. When proteins were pulse-labeled for short periods, no or only a weak decrease was observed in the differential synthesis rate of several r proteins (L5, L39, L29 and/or L28, L27 and/or S21) relative to those of control cells synthesizing RPA190 from the normal promoter. Degradation of these r proteins synthesized in excess was observed during subsequent chase periods. Analysis of the amounts of mRNAs for L3 and L29 and their locations in polysomes also suggested that the synthesis of these proteins relative to other cellular proteins were comparable to those observed in control cells. However, Northern analysis of several r-protein mRNAs revealed that the unspliced precursor mRNA for r-protein L32 accumulated when rRNA synthesis rates were decreased. This result supports the feedback regulation model in which excess L32 protein inhibits the splicing of its own precursor mRNA, as proposed by previous workers (M. D. Dabeva, M. A. Post-Beittenmiller, and J. R. Warner, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83:5854-5857, 1986).  相似文献
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It was shown that induction of rRNA (and ribosome) synthesis from the lambda PL promoter/operator by temperature shift-up causes a repression of rRNA and tRNA synthesis from chromosomal genes. We have carried out experiments using a similar conditional rRNA gene expression system in which a mutational alteration was introduced in the anti-Shine-Dalgarno region at the 3'-end of the 16 S rRNA gene. It was found that the repression observed with the wild-type gene was largely abolished by the mutation. It appears that ribosomes inefficient in translational initiation are unable to cause feedback regulation of rRNA synthesis. It is suggested that the cell regulates rRNA (and tRNA) synthesis by monitoring the production of ribosomes, and that this monitoring is apparently carried out through their activity in the initiation (and perhaps subsequent steps) of translation.  相似文献
5.
Starting with two temperature-sensitive mutants (rpa190-1 and rpa190-5) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, both of which are amino acid substitutions in the putative zinc-binding domain of the largest subunit (A190) of RNA polymerase I, we have isolated many independent pseudorevertants carrying extragenic suppressors (SRP) of rpa190 mutations. All the SRP mutations were dominant over the corresponding wild-type genes. They were classified into at least seven different loci by crossing each suppressed mutant with all of the other suppressed mutants and analyzing segregants. SRP mutations representing each of the seven loci were studied for their effects on other known rpa190 mutations. All of the SRP mutations were able to suppress both rpa190-1 and rpa190-5. In addition, one particular suppressor, SRP5, was found to suppress two other rpa190 mutations as well as an rpa190 deletion. Southern blot analysis combined with genetic crosses demonstrated that SRP5 maps to a region on chromosome XV loosely linked to rpa190 and represents a transposed mutant gene in two copies. Analysis of the A190 subunit by using anti-A190 antiserum indicated that the cellular concentration of A190 and hence of RNA polymerase I decreases in rpa190-1 mutants after a shift to 37 degrees C and that in the mutant strain carrying SRP5 this decrease is partially alleviated, presumably because of increased synthesis caused by increased gene dosage. These results suggest that the zinc-binding domain plays an important role in protein-protein interaction essential for the assembly and/or stability of the enzyme, regardless of whether it also participates directly in the interaction of the assembled enzyme with DNA.  相似文献
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To understand the genetic background of two floral anthocyanin pigmentation traits, anthocyanin pigmentation in the flower tepals and spot formation, in the Asiatic hybrid lily (2n = 24), segregation of the two traits among 96 F1 plants derived from a cross between commercial cultivars 'Montreux' and 'Connecticut King' were investigated. 'Montreux' has anthocyanin pigmentation in the tepals with many spots, and 'Connecticut King' has flowers with carotenoid pigmentation without spots. The F1 plants with or without anthocyanin pigment in the tepals segregated with a 1:1 segregation ratio, indicating that a single gene controls anthocyanin pigmentation in the tepals. The number of spots per square centimeter of all tepals showed continuous distribution in the F1 plants. To map the loci for the two anthocyanin pigmentation traits, molecular linkage maps in the Asiatic hybrid lily were constructed using a double pseudo-testcross strategy, with the same F1 plants used for phenotypic evaluation, and 212 PCR-based DNA markers. The trait for anthocyanin pigmentation in tepals was used as a trait marker. The map of 'Montreux' comprised 95 markers in 26 linkage groups, and the map of 'Connecticut King' used 119 markers in 24 linkage groups. The total map lengths were 867.5 and 1,114.8 cM, respectively. The trait locus for anthocyanin pigmentation in the tepals was between markers ASR35-180 and P506-40 in linkage group 1 of the 'Montreux' map with a map distance of 1.2 cM and 2.6 cM, respectively. A single-point analysis of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for tepal spot number identified two putative QTLs in linkage groups 1 and 19 of the 'Connecticut King' map. One putative QTL in linkage group 19 explained 64% of the total phenotypic variation. Because both putative QTLs were mapped on the linkage map of 'Connecticut King' that has no spots, dominant alleles of them might suppress spot formation.  相似文献
9.
The gene, rpb1, encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II has been cloned from Schizosaccharomyces pombe using the corresponding gene, RPB1, of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a cross-hybridization probe. We have determined the complete sequence of this gene, and parts of PCR-amplified rpb1 cDNA. The predicted coding sequence, interrupted by six introns, encodes a polypeptide of 1,752 amino acid residues in length with a molecular weight of 194 kilodaltons. This polypeptide contains eight conserved structural domains characteristic of the largest subunit of RNA polymerases from other eukaryotes and, in addition, 29 repetitions of the C-terminal heptapeptide found in all the eukaryotic RNA polymerase II largest subunits so far examined.  相似文献
10.
M Yamagishi  M Nomura 《Gene》1988,74(2):503-515
The gene encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase I (SPRPA190) was cloned from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe by cross-hybridization with a probe containing part of the corresponding Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene RPA190. The SPRPA190 gene is present in a single copy per haploid genome and is essential for cell growth. The polypeptide encoded by this gene, as deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the uninterrupted coding frame, consists of 1689 amino acids and its calculated Mr is 189,300. The amino acid identity between the subunits of the two yeast species is 50%. Amino acid sequence conservation covers the regions previously suggested to be functionally important for the S. cerevisiae enzyme. In addition, two markedly hydrophilic regions recognized in the S. cerevisiae polypeptide can also be recognized in the S. pombe polypeptide in approximately the same positions, even though the amino acid sequences in these regions are diverged from each other. In the 5'-flanking region of the gene, several nucleotide sequence elements are detected which are also found in the two S. pombe ribosomal protein genes so far sequenced.  相似文献
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