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1.
A synthetic peptide substrate for selective assay of protein kinase C.   总被引:24,自引:0,他引:24  
Among various phosphate acceptor proteins and peptides so far tested, a synthetic peptide having the sequence surrounding Ser(8) of myelin basic protein, Gln-Lys-Arg-Pro-Ser(8)-Gln-Arg-Ser-Lys-Tyr-Leu, (MBP4-14), is the most specific and convenient substrate which can be used for selective assay of protein kinase C. This peptide is not phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, casein kinases I and II, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, or phosphorylase kinase, and can be routinely used for the assay of protein kinase C with low background in the crude tissue extracts. The Km value is considerably low (7 microM) with a Vmax value of twice as much as that for H1 histone.  相似文献
2.
A protein kinase C inhibitor, 1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine dihydrochloride (H-7), inhibited phorbol ester (12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate)-induced and Fc gamma receptor-mediated superoxide anion (O2-) generations in guinea pig macrophages, but the inhibitory effect on Fc gamma receptor-mediated O2- generation was only partial. Both O2- generations were inhibited extensively by a phospholipase A2 inhibitor, 4-p-bromophenacyl bromide (4-pBPB). It was confirmed in control experiments that H-7 and 4-pBPB had no direct inhibitory effect on NADPH-oxidase activity. Dose-dependent stimulation of O2- generation was induced by arachidonate in macrophages, and the arachidonate-induced O2- generation was not inhibited by H-7. Arachidonate could also induce NADPH-oxidase activation in a post-nuclear fraction obtained from unstimulated macrophages and this activation was not inhibited by H-7, indicating that protein kinase C activation was not involved in this cellfree system. These results support the hypothesis that the O2- generation induced by Fc gamma receptor stimulation is mainly mediated by arachidonic acid which is released by the action of phospholipase A2 activated by receptor stimulation. Arachidonic acid seems to be acting rather directly in activating the NADPH-oxidase system of macrophage membrane. Protein kinase C may have a significant role in Fc gamma receptor-mediated O2- generation but it is not obligatory, and protein kinase C seems to activate NADPH-oxidase rather indirectly, probably by inducing the arachidonic acid release.  相似文献
3.
We attempted to analyze the association of hyperthyroid Graves' disease with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Forty-nine patients (23 males and 26 females; 7.6%) of a total of 647 patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease had NIDDM, several years before or after Graves' disease was diagnosed. Only 1 patient had insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Compared with the general Japanese population (n = 9,133), the incidence of NIDDM (n = 348; 3.9%) in patients with Graves' disease was higher in all age groups. Only 4 patients (8.2%) of the 49 hyperthyroid patients with NIDDM had a history of being overweight (body mass index > 25). In contrast, 276 (79.9%) of the 348 diabetic patients were currently or previously overweight. Moreover, the incidence of a family history of diabetes (13 of the 49 hyperthyroid Graves' patients with NIDDM; 26.5%) was also lower in the patients with NIDDM in the general Japanese population (50% incidence). The male:female ration in patients with Graves' disease and NIDDM was 1:1.1; much different from that in the total Graves' disease population (1:4.1). Analysis of the HLA loci A, B, C, DR and DQ (35 determinations) in 35 hyperthyroid patients with NIDDM and in 386 subjects from the general population revealed a highly significant difference between them in the incidence of HLA-Cw4, -DR2, -DQw1, -DQw3 and -DQw4. This study suggests that there was an association of Graves' disease with NIDDM. A significant association of HLA-DR and -DQ loci was observed in hyperthyroid Graves' patients with NIDDM.  相似文献
4.
Distribution and molecular forms of glucagon-like peptide in the dog   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
Using glucagon-like peptide-1 N-terminus and C-terminus directed antisera, we investigated concentration and molecular forms of GLP-1 immunoreactivity (IR) in extracts of various tissues of the dog. GLP-1 IR measured with C-terminus-directed antiserum R2337 (GLP-1 IR-CT) was high in the ileum, appendix, jejunum, colon, and gastric fundus and body. GLP-1 IR measured with N-terminus-directed antiserum R1043 (GLP-1 IR-NT) was high only in the pancreas, and gastric fundus and body. Only GLP-1 IR-CT was found in the hypothalamus, thalamus and medulla oblongata. No immunoreactive materials were detected in the liver, spleen and kidney. Gel-filtration with Sephadex G-50 showed two peaks of both GLP-1 IR-CT and GLP-1 IR-NT, at 10kd and at the position of GLP-1 (1-36 amide) in the pancreatic extract, and one peak at 10kd in the stomach extract. Ileal extracts showed 3 peaks of GLP-1 IR-CT at 10kd, at the position of GLP-1(1-36 amide) and GLP-1(7-36 amide), respectively, but GLP-1 IR-NT was coeluted with GLP-1(1-36 amide). Hypothalamic extracts showed a single peak at the position of GLP-1(7-36 amide). These results suggest that processing of preproglucagon differs in different organs, and that the main GLP-1-related products are a large molecular form and GLP-1(1-36 amide) or GLP-1(1-37) in the pancreas, and GLP-1(7-36 amide) or GLP-1 (7-37) in the ileum and hypothalamus.  相似文献
5.
The calmodulin inhibitor, N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalene sulfonamide (W-7), or trifluoperazine inhibited not only Fc gamma-receptor mediated cytosolic free Ca2+ increase and O2- generation in macrophages, but also an arachidonate-induced activation of NADPH-oxidase in a cell-free system. Although these results suggested the involvement of Ca2+-calmodulin system, the cell-free activation of NADPH-oxidase occurred in the presence of EGTA and addition of calmodulin had no effect. Furthermore W-7 shifted the optimal concentration of arachidonate required for the activation to a higher level, suggesting that W-7 may block the interaction between arachidonate and NADPH-oxidase system rather than inhibiting a Ca2+-calmodulin system.  相似文献
6.
The binding of 3H-acetylcholine (ACh) to acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) on rat thymocytes was examined and found to be inhibited by the treatment with several antagonists against nicotinic and muscarinic AChRs. This result suggested that thymocytes have AChRs with different affinity, and bear both nicotinic and muscarinic AChRs on their surfaces. To make clear the functional significance of the AChRs, DNA synthesis of the thymocytes stimulated with ACh was examined. 3H-thymidine uptake of thymocytes was significantly increased when the cells were stimulated with ACh or another cholinergic agonist. The increment of DNA synthesis caused by ACh in thymocytes was not reduced by treatment with nicotinic antagonists, but was decreased by treatment with any of the muscarinic antagonists. Concentration of the intracellular second messengers, inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) was also made higher by ACh stimulation. It is discussed that the enhancement of intracellular IP3 and cGMP concentrations after stimulation of muscarinic AChRs appears to be related with the increment of thymocyte DNA synthesis.  相似文献
7.
Endogenous inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme in the rat heart   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
We have identified a substance in the rat heart which inhibits ACE. This substance was characterized to be a sulfhydryl (SH) protein, the SH moiety being essential for the inhibitory activity. The inhibitory activity disappeared when the extract was boiled, or the ultrafiltrate(mol.wt.less than 10,000) was used, or when the extract was pretreated with the SH-blocking agent 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitro benzoic acid) at 0.5mM or the SH oxidizing agent diamide at 1mM. This substance was fractionated with Thiopropyl Sepharose affinity chromatography, precipitation with 40% ammonium sulfate saturation and high performance liquid chromatography. The mode of inhibition was competitive. In the presence of 20 micrograms/ml of this substance, the contraction of rat aortic strips induced by 5 x 10(-8)M ANG I was inhibited by 60%. This endogenous inhibitor of ACE may modulate the activity of ACE in the heart, in response to alterations in the oxidation-reduction balance in the tissue.  相似文献
8.
Summary On the basis of the inhibition of myosin by 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM), the protein's involvement in various cell activities is discussed. However, it has not been established whether BDM inhibits plant myosin. In the present study, the effect of BDM on isolated plant myosin was analyzed in vitro. The sliding between myosin from lily (Lilium longiflorum) pollen tubes and actin filaments from skeletal muscle was inhibited to 25% at a concentration of 60 mM, indicating that BDM can be used as a myosin inhibitor for plant materials. Cytoplasmic streaming was completely inhibited by BDM at 30 mM in lily pollen tubes and at 70 mM in short root hair cells, and at 100 mM in long root hair cells ofHydrocharis dubia. However, BDM at high concentrations induced the disorganization of actin filament bundles in lily pollen tubes and short root hair cells. In addition, cortical microtubules were also fragmented in short root hair cells treated with BDM, suggesting a possible side effect of BDM.Abbreviations AF actin filament - BDM 2,3-butanedione monoxime - MT microtubule  相似文献
9.
Summary In root hair cells ofLimnobium stoloniferum, a protein phosphatase inhibitor, calyculin A (CA), at concentrations higher than 50 nM inhibits cytoplasmic streaming and induces remarkable morphological changes in the cytoplasm: the transvacuolar strands disperse and spherical cytoplasmic bodies emerge. The mechanism of the morphological changes of the cytoplasm induced by CA was studied by pharmacological analyses. The formation of spherical bodies in cells treated with CA was suppressed by the actin-depolymerizing and -fragmenting drugs latrunculin B and cytochalasin D at concentrations higher than 100 nM and 5 M, respectively. In contrast, 100 M propyzamide, a microtubule-depolymerizing drug, did not affect the formation of spherical bodies by CA. Interestingly, 60 mM 2,3-butanedione monoxime, an inhibitor of myosin, also suppressed the CA-induced formation of cytoplasmic spherical bodies. These results indicate that the actin cytoskeleton is intimately involved in the morphological changes of the cytoplasm induced by CA.Abbreviations APW artificial pond water - BDM 2,3-butanedione monoxime - CD cytochalasin D - DMSO dimethylsulfoxide - LB latrunculin B - Pro propyzamide  相似文献
10.
Summary We studied the mechanism controlling the organization of actin filaments (AFs) inHydrocharis root hair cells, in which reverse fountain streaming occurs. The distribution of AFs and microtubules (MTs) in root hair cells were analyzed by fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy. AFs and MTs were found running in the longitudinal direction of the cell at the cortical region. AFs were observed in the transvacuolar strand, but not MTs. Ultrastructural studies revealed that AFs and MTs were colocalized and that MTs were closer to the plasma membrane than AFs. To examine if MTs regulate the organization of AFs, we carried out a double inhibitor experiment using cytochalasin B (CB) and propyzamide, which are inhibitors of AFs and MTs, respectively. CB reversibly inhibited cytoplasmic streaming while propyzamide alone had no effect on it. However, after treatment with both CB and propyzamide, removal of CB alone did not lead to recovery of cytoplasmic streaming. In these cells, AFs showed a meshwork structure. When propyzamide was also removed, cytoplasmic streaming and the original organization of AFs were recovered. These results strongly suggest that MTs are responsible for the organization of AFs inHydrocharis root hair cells.  相似文献
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