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Mitosis is a highly coordinated process that assures the fidelity of chromosome segregation. Errors in this process result in aneuploidy which can lead to cell death or oncogenesis. In this paper we describe a putative mammalian protein kinase, AIM-1 (Aurora and Ipl1-like midbody-associated protein), related to Drosophila Aurora and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ipl1, both of which are required for chromosome segregation. AIM-1 message and protein accumulate at G2/M phase. The protein localizes at the equator of central spindles during late anaphase and at the midbody during telophase and cytokinesis. Overexpression of kinase-inactive AIM-1 disrupts cleavage furrow formation without affecting nuclear division. Furthermore, cytokinesis frequently fails, resulting in cell polyploidy and subsequent cell death. These results strongly suggest that AIM-1 is required for proper progression of cytokinesis in mammalian cells.  相似文献
2.
We have developed a modified, reproducible, and efficient method for introducing cloned genes into mammalian cells by using an electric field followed by treatment with sodium butyrate. Transfection frequencies with plasmid pSV2-neo, consisting of an antibiotic (G418) resistance gene and simian virus 40 (SV40) early promoter, by electroporation were higher than those by calcium phosphate DNA precipitation. Treatment with sodium butyrate following electroporation significantly increased the frequency of transfection in various types of cell lines and primary cultured cells including human skin fibroblasts. Treatment with sodium butyrate also increased the transient expression of the gene for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (acetyl-CoA; chloramphenicol O3-acetyltransferase, CAT, EC 2.3.1.28) when the gene was introduced into BALB/c 3T3 cells by electroporation. Electroporation combined with sodium butyrate treatment is an improved method for stable and transient biochemical transformation of foreign genes in cultured mammalian cells.  相似文献
3.
The induction of DNA synthesis in quiescent, density-arrested Balb/c 3T3 cells is known to be controlled by the sequential action of at least two functionally distinct sets of growth factors, so-called "competence factors" and "progression factors." Here we examined this induction pathway in Balb/c 3T3 A31-I variants, which showed differential susceptibilities to radiation- and chemical-induced neoplastic transformation despite their similar susceptibilities to radiation- or chemical-induced cell killing and mutagenesis. DNA synthesis was acquired only with the exposure to progression factors in a highly susceptible cell variant (A31-1-13) whereas both competence factors and progression factors were required for a less susceptible cell variant (A31-I-1). The competent state constitutively produced by an autologous mechanism in the highly transformation-susceptible A31-I-13 cells suggests the existence of an endogenous promoter that acts for the expression of the transformed phenotype in an autocrine fashion when the cells have been initiated by radiation or chemical carcinogens. The growth factor requirements acting as a determining factor for susceptibilities to transformation are discussed.  相似文献
4.
An automated, video-driven system has been developed which can quantitate dynamic cell morphology in cultured mammalian cells. This system is based upon the Personal Image Analysis System and is assisted by a video-enhanced contrast microscopy with a computer-aided digital image processing unit and a time-lapse video technique. Various parameters for cell motility including locomotion (vectorial translation) and accompanying shape changes can be simultaneously analyzed. Here, we describe this system and demonstrate its application in Balb/c 3T3 cell culture. This system represents a new tool for exploring subtleties of mammalian cell behavior.  相似文献
5.
Sensitivity to X-ray-induced G2 arrest was compared between ataxia telangiectasia (AT) lymphoblastoid cells and normal human cells. Flow cytometrical analysis of cells following X-ray irradiation revealed that the fraction of cells with 4n DNA content was greater in AT cells than in normal cells as previously reported by other investigators. However, the other parameters for cell-cycle progression kinetics including mitotic indices, cumulative mitotic indices and cumulative labelled mitotic indices indicated that X-ray-induced G2 arrest as a function of dose in AT cells was indistinguishable from that in normal cells. Moreover, no significant difference in cell viability was noted between AT and normal cells until 48 h following X-irradiation up to 2.6 Gy, although X-irradiated AT cells, compared to normal cells, showed a significantly decreased survival in terms of cell multiplication in growth medium and colony formation in soft agar. These data collectively suggest that the greater accumulation of AT cells with 4n DNA content in flow cytometry cannot be attributed to more stringent irreversible blockage of cell-cycle progression at the G2 phase and eventual cell death there. The possible reasons for this greater accumulation are discussed.  相似文献
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