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1.
Human lymphocytes were either exposed to X-irradiation (25 to 200 rads) or treated with H2O2 (9.1 to 291 microM) at 4 degrees C and the extent of DNA migration was measured using a single-cell microgel electrophoresis technique under alkaline conditions. Both agents induced a significant increase in DNA migration, beginning at the lowest dose evaluated. Migration patterns were relatively homogeneous among cells exposed to X-rays but heterogeneous among cells treated with H2O2. An analysis of repair kinetics following exposure to 200 rads X-rays was conducted with lymphocytes obtained from three individuals. The bulk of the DNA repair occurred within the first 15 min, while all of the repair was essentially complete by 120 min after exposure. However, some cells demonstrated no repair during this incubation period while other cells demonstrated DNA migration patterns indicative of more damage than that induced by the initial irradiation with X-rays. This technique appears to be sensitive and useful for detecting damage and repair in single cells.  相似文献
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We isolated cDNA clones corresponding to the normal human Ki-ras2 gene and to the transforming allele of the Ki-ras2 gene present in the human colon carcinoma cell line SW480. These two cDNAs encode p21 proteins which differ only at the amino acid at position 12. The normal cDNA encodes a glycine at this position, and the transforming allele encodes a valine. Expression of these cDNAs indicates that this amino acid 12 alteration confers oncogenic activity on the mutated gene. Analysis of the relationship of the cDNAs and Kirsten sarcoma virus ras gene to a genomic clone allowed us to identify two alternative 3' coding exons for the Ki-ras2 gene, suggesting that the Ki-ras2 gene encodes two p21 proteins which differ at their carboxy termini. Our data also show that only one of the p21s is necessary to convert cells to a tumorigenic phenotype.  相似文献
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Molecular architecture and functional model of the endocytic AP2 complex   总被引:25,自引:0,他引:25  
Collins BM  McCoy AJ  Kent HM  Evans PR  Owen DJ 《Cell》2002,109(4):523-535
AP2 is the best-characterized member of the family of heterotetrameric clathrin adaptor complexes that play pivotal roles in many vesicle trafficking pathways within the cell. AP2 functions in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, the process whereby cargo enters the endosomal system from the plasma membrane. We describe the structure of the 200 kDa AP2 "core" (alpha trunk, beta2 trunk, mu2, and sigma2) complexed with the polyphosphatidylinositol headgroup mimic inositolhexakisphosphate at 2.6 A resolution. Two potential polyphosphatidylinositide binding sites are observed, one on alpha and one on mu2. The binding site for Yxxphi endocytic motifs is buried, indicating that a conformational change, probably triggered by phosphorylation in the disordered mu2 linker, is necessary to allow Yxxphi motif binding. A model for AP2 recruitment and activation is proposed.  相似文献
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To express the bacterio-opsin (bop) gene in Escherichia coli, we have employed the inducible expression vectors pIN-II-A, -B, and -C (Nakamura, K., and Inouye, M. (1982) EMBO J. 1, 771-775). The vectors contain three cloning sites early in the E. coli lipoprotein gene (lpp) which is transcribed from tandem lpp and lac promoters. The bop gene was modified so as to delete the N-terminal leader sequence and then cloned into each of the three cloning sites to encode three different lipoprotein/bacterio-opsin fusions. Expression of the fusions was demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. The fusion protein was estimated to be about 0.05% of the total cell protein. The cause for the low level of expression apparently was neither an inadequate level of mRNA nor degradation of the protein. However, expression of the fusions caused inhibition of the growth of the host to varying extents. One fusion protein was purified from E. coli membranes to homogeneity by immunoaffinity chromatography followed by preparative gel electrophoresis. The purified fusion protein generated a bacteriorhodopsin-like chromophore on treatment with defined lipid/detergent mixtures and retinal. When reconstituted into vesicles, the protein pumped protons on illumination comparably to the reconstituted native bacterio-opsin.  相似文献
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The chloroplast initiator tRNAfMet from the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus has been purified and its sequence shown to be p C-G-C-A-G-G-A-U-A-G-A-G-C-A-G-U-C-U-Gm-G-D-A-G-C-U-C-m2(2)G-psi-G-G-G-G-C-U-C-A -U-A-A-psi-C-C-C-A-A-U-m7G-D-C-G-C-A-G-G-T-psi-C-A-A-A-U-C-C-U-G-C-U-C-C-U-G-C-A-A-C-C-A-OH. This structure is prokaryotic in character and displays close homologies with a blue green algal initiator tRNAfMet and bean chloroplast initiator tRNAfMet.  相似文献
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CXCR4 is a chemokine receptor used by some strains of HIV-1 as an entry coreceptor in association with cell surface CD4 on human cells. In human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals, the appearance of viral isolates with a tropism for CXCR4 (T tropic) has been correlated with late disease progression. The presumed natural ligands for CXCR4 are SDF-1alpha and SDF-1beta, which are proposed to play a role in blocking T-tropic HIV-1 cell entry. Here, we demonstrate that addition of an N-terminal methionine residue to SDF-1beta (Met-SDF-1beta) results in a dramatically enhanced functional activity compared to that of native SDF-1beta. Equivalent concentrations of Met-SDF-1beta are markedly more inhibitory for T-tropic HIV-1 replication than SDF-1beta. A comparison of the biological activities of these two forms of SDF-1beta reveals that Met-SDF-1beta induces a more pronounced intracellular calcium flux yet binds with slightly lower affinity to CXCR4 than SDF-1beta. Down-modulation of CXCR4 is similar after exposure of cells to either chemokine form for 2 h. However, after a 48-h incubation, the surface expression of CXCR4 is much lower for cells treated with Met-SDF-1beta. The enhanced blocking of T-tropic HIV-1 by Met-SDF-1beta appears to be related to prolonged CXCR4 down-modulation.  相似文献
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Mechanisms of population differentiation in seabirds   总被引:4,自引:1,他引:3  
Despite recent advances in population genetic theory and empirical research, the extent of genetic differentiation among natural populations of animals remains difficult to predict. We reviewed studies of geographic variation in mitochondrial DNA in seabirds to test the importance of various factors in generating population genetic and phylogeographic structure. The extent of population genetic and phylogeographic structure varies extensively among species. Species fragmented by land or ice invariably exhibit population genetic structure and most also have phylogeographic structure. However, many populations (26 of 37) display genetic structure in the absence of land, suggesting that other barriers to gene flow exist. In these populations, the extent of genetic structure is best explained by nonbreeding distribution: almost all species with two or more population-specific nonbreeding areas (or seasons) have phylogeographic structure, and all species that are resident at or near breeding colonies year-round have population genetic structure. Geographic distance between colonies and foraging range appeared to have a weak influence on the extent of population genetic structure, but little evidence was found for an effect of colony dispersion or population bottlenecks. In two species (Galapagos petrel, Pterodroma phaeopygia, and Xantus's murrelet, Synthliboramphus hypoleucus), population genetic structure, and even phylogeographic structure, exist in the absence of any recognizable physical or nonphysical barrier, suggesting that other selective or behavioural processes such as philopatry may limit gene flow. Retained ancestral variation may be masking barriers to dispersal in some species, especially at high latitudes. Allopatric speciation undoubtedly occurs in this group, but reproductive isolation also appears to have evolved through founder-induced speciation, and there is strong evidence that parapatric and sympatric speciation occur. While many questions remain unanswered, results of the present review should aid conservation efforts by enabling managers to predict the extent of population differentiation in species that have not yet been studied using molecular markers, and, thus, enable the identification of management units and evolutionary significant units for conservation.  相似文献
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