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The structure of calcium-bound calmodulin (Ca2+/CaM) complexed with a 26-residue peptide, corresponding to the CaM-binding domain of rat Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK), has been determined by NMR spectroscopy. In this complex, the CaMKK peptide forms a fold comprising an alpha-helix and a hairpin-like loop whose C-terminus folds back on itself. The binding orientation of this CaMKK peptide by the two CaM domains is opposite to that observed in all other CaM-target complexes determined so far. The N- and C-terminal hydrophobic pockets of Ca2+/CaM anchor Trp 444 and Phe 459 of the CaMKK peptide, respectively. This 14-residue separation between two key hydrophobic groups is also unique among previously determined CaM complexes. The present structure represents a new and distinct class of Ca2+/CaM target recognition that may be shared by other Ca2+/CaM-stimulated proteins.  相似文献
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Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD), the second most common form of muscular dystrophy in Japan, is an autosomal recessive severe muscular dystrophy associated with brain anomalies. After our initial mapping of the FCMD locus to chromosome 9q31-33, we have further defined the locus within a approximately 5-cM region between D9S127 and D9S2111 and have found linkage disequilibrium between FCMD and D9S306 in this candidate region on 9q31. The high prevalence of FCMD among the Japanese, who are a relatively isolated population, provides an opportunity to utilize linkage-disequilibrium mapping. We developed three new microsatellites, near D9S306, from the FCMD YAC contig, determined their positions on YACs, and performed linkage-disequilibrium mapping with these markers and other newly published loci. The maximum value of p(excess), which represents the strength of linkage disequilibrium, was obtained at D9S2107; and this value showed a relatively steady rise and fall across the region that is likely to contain FCMD. Distances between FCMD and each marker were presumed to be approximately 1 Mb, approximately 350 kb, approximately 140 kb, approximately 20 kb, approximately 280 kb, approximately 450 kb, and approximately 740 kb for D9S306, A107XF9, D9S2105, D9S2107, D9S172, D9S299, and D9S2109, respectively. Haplotype analysis using the three closest markers D9S2105, D9S2107, and D9S172 indicated that most FCMD-bearing chromosomes are derived from a single ancestral founder and suggested that these markers can be used for the diagnosis of sporadic FCMD. Thus, the FCMD gene is most likely to lie within a region of <100 kb containing D9S2107.  相似文献
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A monoclonal antibody, E12, to human Gc globulin was raised in murine somatic cell using purified Gc. The antibody was subtyped IgG2b kappa and had a kd of 3.0 x 10(-8) M for antigen Gc. Monospecificity for Gc was demonstrated by Western blotting of normal human serum using nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. As judged by ELISA, actin inhibited binding of E12 to Gc in dose-dependent fashion. Affinity chromatography studies further showed that ternary complexes of actin-Gc-E12 were not formed, and actin displaced Gc from Gc-E12 complexes. Proteolytic digestion of Gc with trypsin showed that the monoclonal antibody E12 reacted with the major 30-kDa tryptic fragment containing the amino terminal fragment of Gc, but actin did not react with this fragment. These results indicate that interaction of actin with Gc causes conformational changes which inhibit binding of E12.  相似文献
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Monoclonal antibodies (P3-9H, P3-1F, P3-2H, P3-4A, and P3-4C) to human erythrocyte band 3 were produced using human erythrocyte membranes as the immunogen. All epitopes defined by these antibodies were found on the amino-terminal cytoplasmic domain of erythrocyte band 3. The antibodies crossreacted variously with erythrocyte band 3 of primates (chimpanzee, orangutan, Rhesus monkey, Japanese monkey, spider monkey, and capuchin monkey) in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. P3-9H did not crossreact with erythrocyte band 3 of any primate examined; P3-1F crossreacted only with that of chimpanzee; P3-2H crossreacted with erythrocyte band 3 of chimpanzee, spider monkey, and capuchin monkey; and P3-4A and P3-4C crossreacted with erythrocyte band 3 of all primates examined. These results suggest that evolutional changes in primates are accumulated in the amino-terminal cytoplasmic domain of band 3 and that species-specific epitopes exist on this domain.  相似文献
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To facilitate searching for genes encoding cell membrane proteins, we developed a method for isolating cDNAs that contain sequences for hydrophobic transmembrane runs. This cloning strategy, termed the "transmembrane (TM) trap method," utilizes a vector that directs the cell surface expression of mouse CD4 fusion protein when an insert encoding hydrophobic transmembrane sequences is cloned in-frame with correct orientation. We applied this novel method to isolation of cytokine receptor cDNAs. Our strategy enabled efficient isolation of relatively rare species encoding receptors such as IL-2Rgamma, IL-3Rbeta, IL-4Ralpha, IL-5Ralpha, and IL-6Ralpha. This method also could be used to isolate cDNAs for intracellular molecules with a transmembrane region, e.g., bcl-2. These results indicate that the TM trap method provides an efficient cloning strategy for identification of various families of genes encoding proteins with one or more transmembrane regions.  相似文献
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Calmodulin (CaM) is a ubiquitous calcium (Ca(2+)) sensor which binds and regulates protein serine/threonine kinases along with many other proteins in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. For this multi-functionality, conformational plasticity is essential; however, the nature and magnitude of CaM's plasticity still remains largely undetermined. Here, we present the 1.8 A resolution crystal structure of Ca(2+)/CaM, complexed with the 27-residue synthetic peptide corresponding to the CaM-binding domain of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent kinase kinase (CaMKK). The peptide bound in this crystal structure is a homologue of the previously NMR-derived complex with rat CaMKK, but benefits from improved structural resolution. Careful comparison of the present structure to previous crystal structures of CaM complexed with unrelated peptides derived from myosin light chain kinase and CaM kinase II, allow a quantitative analysis of the differences in the relative orientation of the N and C-terminal domains of CaM, defined as a screw axis rotation angle ranging from 156 degrees to 196 degrees. The principal differences in CaM interaction with various peptides are associated with the N-terminal domain of CaM. Unlike the C-terminal domain, which remains unchanged internally, the N-terminal domain of CaM displays significant differences in the EF-hand helix orientation between this and other CaM structures. Three hydrogen bonds between CaM and the peptide (E87-R336, E87-T339 and K75-T339) along with two salt bridges (E11-R349 and E114-K334) are the most probable determinants for the binding direction of the CaMKK peptide to CaM.  相似文献
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Although aluminum (AL) toxicity has been widely studied in monocotyledonous crop plants, the mechanism of Al impact on economically important dicotyledonous plants is poorly understood. Here, we report the spatial pattern of Al-induced root growth inhibition, which is closely associated with inhibition of H(+)-ATPase activity coupled with decreased surface negativity of plasma membrane (PM) vesicles isolated from apical 5-mm root segments of squash (Cucurbita pepo L. cv Tetsukabuto) plants. High-sensitivity growth measurements indicated that the central elongation zone, located 2 to 4 mm from the tip, was preferentially inhibited where high Al accumulation was found. The highest positive shifts (depolarization) in zeta potential of the isolated PM vesicles from 0- to 5-mm regions of Al-treated roots were corresponded to pronounced inhibition of H(+)-ATPase activity. The depolarization of PM vesicles isolated from Al-treated roots in response to added Al in vitro was less than that of control roots, suggesting, particularly in the first 5-mm root apex, a tight Al binding to PM target sites or irreversible alteration of PM properties upon Al treatment to intact plants. In line with these data, immunolocalization of H(+)-ATPase revealed decreases in tissue-specific H(+)-ATPase in the epidermal and cortex cells (2--3 mm from tip) following Al treatments. Our report provides the first circumstantial evidence for a zone-specific depolarization of PM surface potential coupled with inhibition of H(+)-ATPase activity. These effects may indicate a direct Al interaction with H(+)-ATPase from the cytoplasmic side of the PM.  相似文献
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Endothelial cells are capable of responding to fluid shear stress, but the molecular mechanism for this biological response remains largely unknown. Our studies indicate that the cell-cell adhesion site is a possible site of flow sensing. PECAM-1, a cell adhesion molecule localized to the interendothelial cell adhesion site, is tyrosine-phosphorylated when endothelial cells are exposed to physiological levels of fluid shear stress. This PE-CAM-1 phosphorylation initiates a signaling cascade leading to ERK activation. Here we review what is known about PECAM-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and suggest a possible role of PECAM-1 in mechanosensing by endothelial cells.  相似文献
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