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1.
M Orita  Y Suzuki  T Sekiya  K Hayashi 《Genomics》1989,5(4):874-879
We report a rapid and sensitive method for the detection of base changes in given sequences of genomic DNA. This technique is based on the facts that specific regions of genomic sequences can be efficently labeled and amplified simultaneously by using labeled substrates in the polymerase chain reaction and that in nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels, the electrophoretic mobility of single-stranded nucleic acid depends not only on its size but also on its sequence. The process does not involve restriction enzyme digestion, blotting, or hybridization to probes. We found that most single base changes in up to 200-base fragments could be detected as mobility shifts. RAS oncogene activation was detected by this technique. We also show that the interspersed repetitive sequences of human, Alu repeats are highly polymorphic.  相似文献
2.
DNA sequence polymorphisms in Alu repeats   总被引:15,自引:0,他引:15  
M Orita  T Sekiya  K Hayashi 《Genomics》1990,8(2):271-278
We have developed an efficient method for detection of sequence differences in genomic DNA based on a new principle (M. Orita et al., 1989, Genomics 5: 874-879). Using this method, we show here that approximately half the Alu repeats interspersed in the human genome are significantly polymorphic. Analysis of Alu repeat polymorphism should be useful in construction of a high-resolution map and also in identifying genotypes of individuals for clinical and other purposes because the repeats are ubiquitous and the technique for their detection is simple.  相似文献
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4.
IL-18 is a new type of inflammatory cytokine similar to but distinct from IL-12 and IL-1beta. One intriguing property of IL-18 is synergism with IL-12 in many respects. In this study we examined the in vivo synergistic effects of IL-18/IL-12 in mice and found lethal toxicity accompanying an elevated IFN-gamma level in the serum. Since treatment with IL-18 alone did not have any apparent toxicity, and treatment with IL-12 alone showed only limited toxicity in our system, the synergy between the two cytokines was all the more remarkable. The major symptoms of the toxicity were weight loss, diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, splenomegaly, fatty liver, and atrophic thymus, most of which are similarly found in endotoxin-induced septic shock. However, in contrast to septic shock, TNF-alpha was not induced. The involvement of IFN-gamma in the toxicity was further studied in detail. Treatment of athymic nude mice with anti-asialo-GM1 did not reduce the toxicity, whereas anti-IFN-gamma treatment of wild-type mice alleviated it. When IFN-gamma-deficient mice were treated with IL-18/IL-12, the majority of them showed mortality and toxicity with severe pulmonary edema. These results indicate that IL-18/IL-12 treatment induces severe adverse effects through not only IFN-gamma-dependent mechanisms but also IFN-gamma-independent processes.  相似文献
5.
Ricin is a cytotoxic protein that inactivates ribosomes by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond at position A4324 in eukaryotic 28S rRNA. Its substrate domain forms a double helical stem and a 17-base loop that includes the sequence GAGA, the second adenosine of which corresponds to A4324. Recently, studies of mutant RNAs have shown that the four-nucleotide loop, GAGA, can function as a substrate for ricin. To investigate the structure that is recognized by ricin, we studied the properties of a short synthetic substrate, the dodecaribonucleotide r-CUCAGAGAUGAG, which forms a RNA hairpin structure with a GABA loop and a stem of four base pairs. The results of NMR spectroscopy allowed us to construct the solution structure of this oligonucleotide by restrained molecular-dynamic calculations. We found that the stem region exists as an A-form duplex. 5G and 8A in the loop region form an unusual G:A base pair, and the phosphodiester backbone has a turn between 5G and 6A. This turn seems to help ricin to gain access to 6A which is the only site of depurination in the entire structure. The overall structure of the GAGA loop is similar to those of the GAAA and GCAA loops that have been described but that are not recognized by ricin. Therefore, in addition to the adenosine at the depurination site, the neighboring guanosine on the 3' side (7G) may also play a role in the recognition mechanism together with 5G and 8A.  相似文献
6.
Identification of IFN-gamma-producing cells in IL-12/IL-18-treated mice   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Both IL-12 and IL-18 have been characterized as effective IFN-gamma-inducing cytokines. Concomitant treatment with IL-12 and IL-18 has been shown to synergistically induce IFN-gamma and may be an effective therapy for treating cancer, allergy, and infectious diseases. To understand the mechanisms underlying the strong induction of IFN-gamma by IL-12/IL-18 in mice, we focused our studies on the IFN-gamma-producing cells in various lymphoid organs and tissues and utilized the intracellular cytokine staining method to detect such cells in situ. After combined treatment with IL-12 and IL-18, IFN-gamma-positive cells in C57BL/6 mice were detected in the liver (12.18%), spleen (0.68%), bone marrow (1.80%), and peritoneum (2.12%), but not in the thymus or lymph nodes (<0.05 and <0.08%, respectively). A two-color staining method revealed that the majority of IFN-gamma-producing cells in the liver were NK1.1(+) cells, while those in the spleen were mostly CD3(+) cells, and to a lesser degree NK1.1(+) cells. Both CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells in the liver and in the spleen produced IFN-gamma. The CD19(+) B cell population was not definitely shown to produce IFN-gamma in our induction experiments. NKT cells, which are a subpopulation of NK1. 1(+) CD3(+) cells, were diminished in the liver and did not seem to contribute to IFN-gamma production arising from IL-12/IL-18 treatment. Further in vitro experiments confirmed the responsiveness of hepatic mononuclear cells to IL-12/IL-18 stimulation. This study is the first to show the IFN-gamma-producing mechanisms of IL-12/IL-18 treatment at the phenotypic level.  相似文献
7.
The structure of calcium-bound calmodulin (Ca2+/CaM) complexed with a 26-residue peptide, corresponding to the CaM-binding domain of rat Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK), has been determined by NMR spectroscopy. In this complex, the CaMKK peptide forms a fold comprising an alpha-helix and a hairpin-like loop whose C-terminus folds back on itself. The binding orientation of this CaMKK peptide by the two CaM domains is opposite to that observed in all other CaM-target complexes determined so far. The N- and C-terminal hydrophobic pockets of Ca2+/CaM anchor Trp 444 and Phe 459 of the CaMKK peptide, respectively. This 14-residue separation between two key hydrophobic groups is also unique among previously determined CaM complexes. The present structure represents a new and distinct class of Ca2+/CaM target recognition that may be shared by other Ca2+/CaM-stimulated proteins.  相似文献
8.
Ricin is a cytotoxic plant protein that inactivates ribosomes by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond at position A4324 in eukaryotic 28S rRNA. Recent studies showed that a four-nucleotide loop, GAGA, can function as a minimum substrate for ricin (the first adenosine corresponds to the site of depurination). We previously clarified the solution structure of this loop by NMR spectroscopy [Orita et al. (1993) Nucleic Acids Res. 21, 5670-5678]. To elucidate further details of the structural basis for recognition of its substrate by ricin, we studied the properties of a synthetic dodecanucleotide, r1C2U3C4A5G6dA7G8A9U10G11A12G (6dA12mer), which forms an RNA hairpin structure with a GdAGA loop and in which the site of depurination is changed from adenosine to 2'-deoxyadenosine. The N-glycosidase activity against the GdAGA loop of the A-chain of ricin was 26 times higher than that against the GAGA loop. NMR studies indicated that the overall structure of the GdAGA loop was similar to that of the GAGA loop with the exception of the sugar puckers of 6dA and 7G. Therefore, it appears that the 2'-hydroxyl group of adenosine at the depurination site (6A) does not participate in the recognition by ricin of the substrate. Since the 2'-hydroxyl group can potentially destabilize the developing positive charge of the putative transition state intermediate, an oxycarbonium ion, the electronic effect may explain, at least in part, the faster rate of depurination of the GdAGA loop compared to that of GAGA loop. We also show that the amino group of 7G is essential for substrate recognition the ricin A-chain.  相似文献
9.
In the previous paper, we described a series of 2-phenylethenesulfonamide derivatives, a novel class of ET(A)-selective endothelin (ET) receptor antagonists, including the 2-methoxyethoxy derivative 2a and the 2-fluoroethoxy derivative (2b). In this paper, we wish to report further details of structure-activity relationships (SARs) of the two regions of the molecule in compound 2b, which were the alkoxy region at the 6-position of the core pyrimidine ring and the 2-phenylethenesulfonamide region. In these modifications, replacement of the 2-fluoroethoxy group with a methoxy group (6e) and replacement of the 2-phenylethenesulfonamide group with a 2-(pyridin-3-yl)ethenesulfonamide group (6l) or 2-phenylethanesulfonamide group (6q) were well tolerated both in the ET(A) binding affinity and ET(A) selectivity. Among them, compound 6e showed further improvement in oral activity compared to 2b. After oral administration, compound 6e inhibited the big ET-1 induced pressor response in conscious rats at 0.3mg /kg with a duration of >6.5h. Compound 6e also exhibited a potent antagonistic activity in the pithed rats.  相似文献
10.
The hetero duplex molecule, r(CGCA)d(AAAAAGCG):d(CGCTTTTTTGCG) which corresponds to Okazaki fragment was synthesized and its molecular structure has been analyzed by NMR study. The RNA strand of RNA-DNA hybrid region adopts A-form and DNA strand of the same region deviates from the standard B-form. The conformation of DNA-DNA duplex segment belongs to B-form. The hybrid-DNA duplex junction shows a structural discontinuities, A-B junction. The same conformational characteristic of oligo(dA): oligo(dT) tract as that of DNA oligomer which has same base sequence has been observed.  相似文献
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