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1.
Cyclin E was first identified by screening human cDNA libraries for genes that would complement G1 cyclin mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and has subsequently been found to have specific biochemical and physiological properties that are consistent with it performing a G1 function in mammalian cells. Most significantly, the cyclin E-Cdk2 complex is maximally active at the G1/S transition, and overexpression of cyclin E decreases the time it takes the cell to complete G1 and enter S phase. We have now found that mammalian cells express two forms of cyclin E protein which differ from each other by the presence or absence of a 15-amino-acid amino-terminal domain. These proteins are encoded by alternatively spliced mRNAs and are localized to the nucleus during late G1 and early S phase. Fibroblasts engineered to constitutively overexpress either form of cyclin E showed elevated cyclin E-dependent kinase activity and a shortened G1 phase of the cell cycle. The overexpressed cyclin E protein was detected in the nucleus during all cell cycle phases, including G0. Although the cyclin E protein could be overexpressed in quiescent cells, the cyclin E-Cdk2 complex was inactive. It was not activated until 6 to 8 h after readdition of serum, 4 h earlier than the endogenous cyclin E-Cdk2. This premature activation of cyclin E-Cdk2 was consistent with the extent of G1 shortening caused by cyclin E overexpression. Microinjection of affinity-purified anti-cyclin E antibodies during G1 inhibited entry into S phase, whereas microinjection performed near the G1/S transition was ineffective. These results demonstrate that cyclin E is necessary for entry into S phase. Moreover, we found that cyclin E, in contrast to cyclin D1, was required for the G1/S transition even in cells lacking retinoblastoma protein function. Therefore, cyclins E and D1 control two different transitions within the human cell cycle.  相似文献
2.
The temperature-sensitive mutant cell line tsBN2, was derived from the BHK21 cell line and has a point mutation in the RCC1 gene. In tsBN2 cells, the RCC1 protein disappeared after a shift to the non-permissive temperature at any time in the cell cycle. From S phase onwards, once RCC1 function was lost at the non-permissive temperature, p34cdc2 was dephosphorylated and M-phase specific histone H1 kinase was activated. However, in G1 phase, shifting to the non-permissive temperature did not activate p34cdc2 histone H1 kinase. The activation of p34cdc2 histone H1 kinase required protein synthesis in addition to the presence of a complex between p34cdc2 and cyclin B. Upon the loss of RCC1 in S phase of tsBN2 cells and the consequent p34cdc2 histone H1 kinase activation, a normal mitotic cycle is induced, including the formation of a mitotic spindle and subsequent reformation of the interphase-microtubule network. Exit from mitosis was accompanied by the disappearance of cyclin B, and a decrease in p34cdc2 histone H1 kinase activity. The kinetics of p34cdc2 histone H1 kinase activation correlated well with the appearance of premature mitotic cells and was not affected by the presence of a DNA synthesis inhibitor. Thus the normal inhibition of p34cdc2 activation by incompletely replicated DNA is abrogated by the loss of RCC1.  相似文献
3.
When BHK21 cells synchronized in early S phase were exposed to okadaic acid (OA), an inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A, mitosis specific events such as premature chromosome condensation, the production of MPM-2 antigens, dispersion of nuclear lamins and the appearance of mitotic asters were induced, and then disappeared upon further incubation. These mitosis specific events occurred even in the presence of cycloheximide. Within 1 h of exposure to OA, cdc2/histone H1 kinase activity rose 10-fold compared with untreated controls, but returned to the control level upon further incubation. Using antibodies against either p34cdc2 or cyclin B it was found that p34cdc2 complexed with cyclin B was dephosphorylated after OA treatment concomitant with the activation of cdc2 kinase, and that cyclin B was subsequently degraded concomitant with a decrease in cdc2 kinase activity, as in normal mitosis. In contrast, when cells in G1 phase were treated with OA no increase in cdc2 kinase activity was observed. Moreover when cells in pseudo-metaphase induced by nocodazole were treated with OA, cdc2 kinase was inactivated. These results suggest that OA sensitive protein phosphatases control both the activation and inactivation of the p34cdc2 kinase.  相似文献
4.
At the nonpermissive temperature, premature chromosome condensation (PCC) occurs in tsBN2 cells derived from the BHK cell line, which can be converted to the Ts+ phenotype by the human RCC1 gene. To prove that the RCC1 gene is the mutant gene in tsBN2 cells, which have RCC1 mRNA and protein of the same sizes as those of BHK cells, RCC1 cDNAs were isolated from BHK and tsBN2 cells and sequenced to search for mutations. The hamster (BHK) RCC1 cDNA encodes a protein of 421 amino acids homologous to the human RCC1 protein. In a comparison of the base sequences of BHK and BN2 RCC1 cDNAs, a single base change, cytosine to thymine (serine to phenylalanine), was found in the 256th codon of BN2 RCC1 cDNA. The same transition was verified in the RCC1 genomic DNA by the polymerase chain reaction method. BHK RCC1 cDNA, but not tsBN2 RCC1 cDNA, complemented the tsBN2 mutation, although both have the same amino acid sequence except for one amino acid at the 256th codon. This amino acid change, serine to phenylalanine, was estimated to cause a profound structural change in the RCC1 protein.  相似文献
5.
The tsBN2 cell line, a temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant of baby hamster kidney cell line BHK21/13, seems to possess a mutation in the gene that controls initiation of chromosome condensation. At the nonpermissive temperature (39.5 degrees C), the chromatin of tsBN2 cells is prematurely condensed, and the cells die. Using tsBN2 cells as a recipient of DNA-mediated gene transfer, we investigated a human gene that is responsible for regulation of chromosome condensation and cell proliferation. We found that the human gene complementing the tsBN2 mutation resides in the area of the 40- to 50-kilobase HindIII fragment, derived from HeLa cells. Based on this finding, we initiated cloning of a human gene complementing the tsBN2 mutation. From lambda and cosmid libraries carrying partial digests of DNA from the secondary transformants, the 41.8-kilobase HindIII fragment containing the human DNA was isolated. The cloned human DNA was conserved in ts+ transformants through primary and secondary transfections. Two cosmid clones convert the ts- phenotype of tsBN2 cells to ts+ with more than 100 times a higher efficiency, compared with cases of transfection with total human DNA. Thus, the cloned DNA fragments contain an active human gene that complements the tsBN2 mutation.  相似文献
6.
The RCC1 gene has been isolated from several vertebrates, including human, hamster and Xenopus. Genes similar to RCC1, namely BJ1 and SRM1/PRP20, have been isolated from the insect Drosophila and from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A mutation of the RCC1 gene in the hamster BHK21 cell line, tsBN2, confers pleiotropic phenotypes, including G1 arrest and premature induction of mitosis in cells synchronized at the G1/S boundary. Similarly, mutations of the SRM1/PRP20 gene are pleiotropic; the srm1 mutant shows G1 arrest and suppression of the mating defect of mutants lacking pheromone receptors, and the prp20 mutant shows an alteration in mRNA metabolism. Here we show that both BJ1 and SRM1/PRP20 complement the temperature sensitive phenotype of the tsBN2 cells. Like RCC1 proteins of vertebrates, the protein products of the Drosophila and yeast RCC1 homologues were located in the nuclei of the mammalian cells. These results suggest that the BJ1 and SRM1/PRP20 genes are functionally equivalent to the vertebrate RCC1 genes, and that the RCC1 gene plays an important role in the regulation of gene expression in the eukaryotic cell cycle.  相似文献
7.
In response to DNA damage, mammalian cells adopt checkpoint regulation, by phosphorylation and stabilization of p53, to delay cell cycle progression. However, most cancer cells that lack functional p53 retain an unknown checkpoint mechanism(s) by which cells are arrested at the G(2)/M phase. Here we demonstrate that a human homolog of Cds1/Rad53 kinase (hCds1) is rapidly phosphorylated and activated in response to DNA damage not only in normal cells but in cancer cells lacking functional p53. A survey of various cancer cell lines revealed that the expression level of hCds1 mRNA is inversely related to the presence of functional p53. In addition, transfection of normal human fibroblasts with SV40 T antigen or human papilloma viruses E6 or E7 causes a marked induction of hCds1 mRNA, and the introduction of functional p53 into SV40 T antigen- and E6-, but not E7-, transfected cells decreases the hCds1 level, suggesting that p53 negatively regulates the expression of hCds1. In cells without functional ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein, phosphorylation and activation of hCds1 were observed in response to DNA damage induced by UV but not by ionizing irradiation. These results suggest that hCds1 is activated through an ATM-dependent as well as -independent pathway and that it may complement the function of p53 in DNA damage checkpoints in mammalian cells.  相似文献
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Point mutations of Asp-376 of the alpha-subunit of Torpedo californica Na+/K(+)-ATPase (the site of phosphorylation during the catalytic cycle) to Asn, Glu or Thr led to virtual abolishment of Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity and ouabain-binding capacity. Replacement of Lys-507 of the same subunit (the putative ATP-binding site) by Met resulted in decreases in Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity and ouabain-binding capacity. These results are in agreement with those reported for rabbit sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2(+)-ATPase (Maruyama, K. and MacLennan, D.H. (1988) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 3314-3318).  相似文献
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