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1.
The relationship between the preferred side-chain dihedral angles and the secondary structure of a residue was examined. The structures of 61 proteins solved to a resolution of 2.0 A (1 A = 0.1 nm) or better were analysed using a relational database to store the information. The strongest feature observed was that the chi 1 distribution for most side-chains in an alpha-helix showed an absence of the g- conformation and a shift towards the t conformation when compared to the non-alpha/beta structures. The exceptions to this tendency were for short polar side-chains that form hydrogen bonds with the main-chain which prefer g+. Shifts in the chi 1 preferences for residues in the beta-sheet were observed. Other side-chain dihedral angles (chi 2, chi 3, chi 4) were found to be influenced by the main-chain. This paper presents more accurate distributions for the side-chain dihedral angles which were obtained from the increased number of proteins determined to high resolution. The means and standard deviations for chi 1 and chi 2 angles are presented for all residues according to the secondary structure of the main-chain. The means and standard deviations are given for the most popular conformations for side-chains in which chi 3 and chi 4 rotations affect the position of C atoms.  相似文献
2.
The intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, CD54) is one of three putative endothelial receptors that mediate in vitro cytoadherence of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes. Since cytoadherence to postcapillary venular endothelium is thought to be a major factor in the virulence of P. falciparum malaria, we have examined the interaction between ICAM-1 and the P. falciparum-infected cell, and have compared it with the interaction to the physiological counter receptor, the leukocyte integrin LFA-1. Our results demonstrate that the malaria-binding site resides in the first two domains of the ICAM-1 molecule and overlaps, but is distinct from, the LFA-1 site.  相似文献
3.
An algorithm is presented for the multiple alignment of protein sequences that is both accurate and rapid computationally. The approach is based on the conventional dynamic-programming method of pairwise alignment. Initially, two sequences are aligned, then the third sequence is aligned against the alignment of both sequences one and two. Similarly, the fourth sequence is aligned against one, two and three. This is repeated until all sequences have been aligned. Iteration is then performed to yield a final alignment. The accuracy of sequence alignment is evaluated from alignment of the secondary structures in a family of proteins. For the globins, the multiple alignment was on average 99% accurate compared to 90% for pairwise comparison of sequences. For the alignment of immunoglobulin constant and variable domains, the use of many sequences yielded an alignment of 63% average accuracy compared to 41% average for individual variable/constant alignments. The multiple alignment algorithm yields an assignment of disulphide connectivity in mammalian serotransferrin that is consistent with crystallographic data, whereas pairwise alignments give an alternative assignment.  相似文献
4.
The prediction of protein secondary structure (alpha-helices, beta-sheets and coil) is improved by 9% to 66% using the information available from a family of homologous sequences. The approach is based both on averaging the Garnier et al. (1978) secondary structure propensities for aligned residues and on the observation that insertions and high sequence variability tend to occur in loop regions between secondary structures. Accordingly, an algorithm first aligns a family of sequences and a value for the extent of sequence conservation at each position is obtained. This value modifies a Garnier et al. prediction on the averaged sequence to yield the improved prediction. In addition, from the sequence conservation and the predicted secondary structure, many active site regions of enzymes can be located (26 out of 43) with limited over-prediction (8 extra). The entire algorithm is fully automatic and is applicable to all structural classes of globular proteins.  相似文献
5.
A protein secondary structure prediction method from multiply aligned homologous sequences is presented with an overall per residue three-state accuracy of 70.1%. There are two aims: to obtain high accuracy by identification of a set of concepts important for prediction followed by use of linear statistics; and to provide insight into the folding process. The important concepts in secondary structure prediction are identified as: residue conformational propensities, sequence edge effects, moments of hydrophobicity, position of insertions and deletions in aligned homologous sequence, moments of conservation, auto-correlation, residue ratios, secondary structure feedback effects, and filtering. Explicit use of edge effects, moments of conservation, and auto-correlation are new to this paper. The relative importance of the concepts used in prediction was analyzed by stepwise addition of information and examination of weights in the discrimination function. The simple and explicit structure of the prediction allows the method to be reimplemented easily. The accuracy of a prediction is predictable a priori. This permits evaluation of the utility of the prediction: 10% of the chains predicted were identified correctly as having a mean accuracy of > 80%. Existing high-accuracy prediction methods are "black-box" predictors based on complex nonlinear statistics (e.g., neural networks in PHD: Rost & Sander, 1993a). For medium- to short-length chains (> or = 90 residues and < 170 residues), the prediction method is significantly more accurate (P < 0.01) than the PHD algorithm (probably the most commonly used algorithm). In combination with the PHD, an algorithm is formed that is significantly more accurate than either method, with an estimated overall three-state accuracy of 72.4%, the highest accuracy reported for any prediction method.  相似文献
6.
The BRCT domain (BRCA1 C-terminus), first identified in the breast cancer suppressor protein BRCA1, is an evolutionarily conserved protein-protein interaction region of approximately 95 amino acids found in a large number of proteins involved in DNA repair, recombination and cell cycle control. Here we describe the first three-dimensional structure and fold of a BRCT domain determined by X-ray crystallography at 3.2 A resolution. The structure has been obtained from the C-terminal region of the human DNA repair protein XRCC1, and comprises a four-stranded parallel beta-sheet surrounded by three alpha-helices, which form an autonomously folded domain. The compact XRCC1 structure explains the observed sequence homology between different BRCT motifs and provides a framework for modelling other BRCT domains. Furthermore, the established structure of an XRCC1 BRCT homodimer suggests potential protein-protein interaction sites for the complementary BRCT domain in DNA ligase III, since these two domains form a stable heterodimeric complex. Based on the XRCC1 BRCT structure, we have constructed a model for the C-terminal BRCT domain of BRCA1, which frequently is mutated in familial breast and ovarian cancer. The model allows insights into the effects of such mutations on the fold of the BRCT domain.  相似文献
7.
A mechanism by which ligand binding to the extracellular domain of a growth factor receptor causes activation of its cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domain is that binding promotes receptor dimerization. Recently we proposed a model in which dimerization of the transmembrane alpha-helices in one member of this family, rat neu, is mediated by the presence of three specific residues. This paper shows that a similar sequence motif is observed in 18 of the 20 transmembrane alpha-helices of the tyrosine kinase family of growth factor receptors. The motif encompasses a five residue segment in which position 0 (P0) requires a small side chain (Gly, Ala, Ser, Thr or Pro), P3 an aliphatic side chain (Ala, Val, Leu or Ile) and P4 only the smallest side chains (Gly or Ala). In addition other features of the transmembrane sequences are reported. It is concluded that the dimerization of transmembrane alpha-helices may be a general mechanism of tyrosine kinase activation in this family of growth factor receptors.  相似文献
8.
A three-dimensional model for the ATP-binding site of the oncogene product v-src is proposed by the use of interactive computer graphics. A similar model would apply to sequence related proteins such as other oncogene products, the epidermal growth factor receptor, cAMP-dependent protein kinase and the cell division control protein CDC28. The model was proposed on the basis of the conservation of certain key residues between the oncogene product family of proteins and several nucleotide binding proteins of known structures.  相似文献
9.
Side-chain conformational entropy in protein folding.   总被引:14,自引:11,他引:3       下载免费PDF全文
An important, but often neglected, contribution to the thermodynamics of protein folding is the loss of entropy that results from restricting the number of accessible side-chain conformers in the native structure. Conformational entropy changes can be found by comparing the number of accessible rotamers in the unfolded and folded states, or by estimating fusion entropies. Comparison of several sets of results using different techniques shows that the mean conformational free energy change (T delta S) is 1 kcal.mol-1 per side chain or 0.5 kcal.mol-1 per bond. Changes in vibrational entropy appear to be negligible compared to the entropy change resulting from the loss of accessible rotamers. Side-chain entropies can help rationalize alpha-helix propensities, predict protein/inhibitor complex structures, and account for the distribution of side chains on the protein surface or interior.  相似文献
10.
G Moont  H A Gabb  M J Sternberg 《Proteins》1999,35(3):364-373
Empirical residue-residue pair potentials are used to screen possible complexes for protein-protein dockings. A correct docking is defined as a complex with not more than 2.5 A root-mean-square distance from the known experimental structure. The complexes were generated by "ftdock" (Gabb et al. J Mol Biol 1997;272:106-120) that ranks using shape complementarity. The complexes studied were 5 enzyme-inhibitors and 2 antibody-antigens, starting from the unbound crystallographic coordinates, with a further 2 antibody-antigens where the antibody was from the bound crystallographic complex. The pair potential functions tested were derived both from observed intramolecular pairings in a database of nonhomologous protein domains, and from observed intermolecular pairings across the interfaces in sets of nonhomologous heterodimers and homodimers. Out of various alternate strategies, we found the optimal method used a mole-fraction calculated random model from the intramolecular pairings. For all the systems, a correct docking was placed within the top 12% of the pair potential score ranked complexes. A combined strategy was developed that incorporated "multidock," a side-chain refinement algorithm (Jackson et al. J Mol Biol 1998;276:265-285). This placed a correct docking within the top 5 complexes for enzyme-inhibitor systems, and within the top 40 complexes for antibody-antigen systems.  相似文献
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