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1.
Two monoclonal antibodies designated BAT085 and G3-136 were raised by immunizing BALB/c mice with gp120 purified from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) IIIB-infected H9 cell extracts. Among three HIV-1 laboratory isolates (IIIB, MN, and RF), BAT085 neutralized only IIIB infection of CEM-SS cells, whereas G3-136 neutralized both IIIB and RF. These antibodies also neutralized a few primary HIV-1 isolates in the infection of activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In indirect immunofluorescence assays, BAT085 bound to H9 cells infected with IIIB or MN, while G3-136 bound to H9 cells infected with IIIB or RF, but not MN. Using sequence-overlapping synthetic peptides of HIV-1 IIIB gp120, the binding site of BAT085 and G3-136 was mapped to a peptidic segment in the V2 region (amino acid residues 169 to 183). The binding of these antibodies to immobilized gp120 was not inhibited by the antibodies directed to the principal neutralization determinant in the V3 region or to the CD4-binding domain of gp120. In a competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, soluble CD4 inhibited G3-136 but not BAT085 from binding to gp120. Deglycosylation of gp120 by endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H or reduction of gp120 by dithiothreitol diminished its reactivity with G3-136 but not with BAT085. These results indicate that the V2 region of gp120 contains multiple neutralization determinants recognized by antibodies in both a conformation-dependent and -independent manner.  相似文献
2.
A panel of seven monoclonal antibodies against the relatively conserved CD4-binding domain on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 was generated by immunizing mice with purified gp120. These monoclonal antibodies reacted specifically with gp120 in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blots (immunoblots). By using synthetic peptides as antigens in the immunosorbent assay, the epitopes of these seven monoclonal antibodies were mapped to amino acid residues 423 to 437 of gp120. Further studies with radioimmunoprecipitation assays showed that they cross-reacted with both gp120 and gp160 of diverse HIV-1 isolates (HTLV-IIIB, HTLV-IIIRF, HTLV-IIIAL, and HTLV-IIIWMJ). They also bound specifically to H9 cells infected with HTLV-IIIB, HTLV-IIIRF, HTLV-IIIAL, HTLV-IIIZ84, and HTLV-IIIZ34 in indirect immunofluorescence studies. In addition, they blocked effectively the binding of HIV-1 to CD4+ C8166 cells. Despite the similarity of these properties, the monoclonal antibodies differed in neutralizing activity against HTLV-IIIB, HTLV-IIIRF, and HTLV-IIIAL, as demonstrated in both syncytium-forming assays and infectivity assays. Our findings suggest that these group-specific monoclonal antibodies to the putative CD4-binding domain on gp120 are potential candidates for development of therapeutic agents against acquired immunodeficiency disease syndrome.  相似文献
3.
We have probed the structure of the C4 and V3 domains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 by immunochemical techniques. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) recognizing an exposed gp120 sequence, (E/K)VGKAMYAPP, in C4 were differentially sensitive to denaturation of gp120, implying a conformational component to some of the epitopes. The MAbs recognizing conformation-sensitive C4 structures failed to bind to a gp120 mutant with an alteration in the sequence of the V3 loop, and their binding to gp120 was inhibited by both V3 and C4 MAbs. This implies an interaction between the V3 and C4 regions of gp120, which is supported by the observation that the binding of some MAbs to the V3 loop was often enhanced by amino acid changes in an around the C4 region.  相似文献
4.
We have analyzed a panel of eight murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that depend on the V2 domain for binding to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120. Each MAb is sensitive to amino acid changes within V2, and some are affected by substitutions elsewhere. With one exception, the MAbs were not reactive with peptides from the V2 region, or only poorly so. Hence their ability to bind recombinant strain IIIB gp120 depended on the preservation of native structure. Three MAbs cross-reacted with strain RF gp120, but only one cross-reacted with MN gp120, and none bound SF-2 gp120. Four MAbs neutralized HIV-1 IIIB with various potencies, and the one able to bind MN gp120 neutralized that virus. Peptide serology indicated that antibodies cross-reactive with the HxB2 V1 and V2 regions are rarely present in HIV-1-positive sera, but the relatively conserved segment between the V1 and V2 loops was recognized by antibodies in a significant fraction of sera. Antibodies able to block the binding of V2 MAbs to IIIB or MN gp120 rarely exist in sera from HIV-1-infected humans; more common in these sera are antibodies that enhance the binding of V2 MAbs to gp120. This enhancement effect of HIV-1-positive sera can be mimicked by several human MAbs to different discontinuous gp120 epitopes. Soluble CD4 enhanced binding of one V2 MAb to oligomeric gp120 but not to monomeric gp120, perhaps by inducing conformational changes in the oligomer.  相似文献
5.
Interaction of interleukin 2 (IL2) with its high affinity membrane receptor complex (IL2R) is sufficient to induce proliferation of T lymphocytes. However, the biochemical mechanisms by which IL2 induces this process remain unresolved. The IL2R complex consists of at least two distinct polypeptides that bind IL2, a 75-kDa intermediate affinity subunit (IL2R beta) and a 55-kDa low affinity subunit (IL2R alpha). As indicated by Western blotting with anti-phosphotyrosine-specific antibodies and confirmed by phosphoamino acid analysis, we now demonstrate that interaction of the T cell growth factor interleukin 2 (IL2) with its high affinity receptor on IL2-sensitive human peripheral blood lymphoblasts induces tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins of 92, 80, 78, 70-75, and 57 kDa. IL2 induced tyrosine phosphorylation in YT 2C2 cells which express only the 75-kDa intermediate affinity IL2 binding molecule (IL2R beta) but not in cells which either express only the 55-kDa low affinity IL2 receptor molecule (IL2R alpha) or no IL2-binding sites. Therefore, IL2R beta, in the absence of IL2R alpha, appears sufficient to transduce the transmembrane signal leading to tyrosine phosphorylation. Two different antibodies reactive with phosphotyrosine specifically immunoprecipitated IL2R beta cross-linked to radiolabeled IL2. These findings suggest that IL2R beta is a substrate for the tyrosine kinase which is activated by IL2 binding to its receptor. Thus, like several other growth factor receptors, activation of the IL2R results in an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation with the receptor itself serving as one substrate.  相似文献
6.
Chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIV) containing the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) tat, rev, env, and, in some cases, vpu genes were inoculated into eight cynomolgus monkeys. Viruses could be consistently recovered from the CD8-depleted peripheral blood lymphocytes of all eight animals for at least 2 months. After this time, virus isolation varied among the animals, with viruses continuing to be isolated from some animals beyond 600 days after inoculation. The level of viral RNA in plasma during acute infection and the frequency of virus isolation after the initial 2-month period were higher for the Vpu-positive viruses. All of the animals remained clinically healthy, and the absolute numbers of CD4-positive lymphocytes were stable. Antibodies capable of neutralizing HIV-1 were generated at high titers in animals exhibiting the greatest consistency of virus isolation. Strain-specific HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies were initially elicited, and then more broadly neutralizing antibodies were elicited. env sequences from two viruses isolated more than a year after infection were analyzed. In the Vpu-negative SHIV, for which virus loads were lower, a small amount of env variation, which did not correspond to that found in natural HIV-1 variants, was observed. By contrast, in the Vpu-positive virus, which was consistently isolated from the host animal, extensive variation of the envelope glycoproteins in the defined variable gp120 regions was observed. Escape from neutralization by CD4 binding site monoclonal antibodies was observed for the viruses with the latter envelope glycoproteins, and the mechanism of escape appears to involve decreased binding of the antibody to the monomeric gp120 glycoproteins. The consistency with which SHIV infection of cynomolgus monkeys is initiated and the similarities in the neutralizing antibody response to SHIV and HIV-1 support the utility of this model system for the study of HIV-1 prophylaxis.  相似文献
7.
Murine mAb BAT123, which was made against the envelope glycoprotein gp120 of HTLV-IIIB strain of HIV type 1 (HIV-1), is capable of neutralizing HTLV-IIIB in vitro. It also inhibits the fusion between uninfected CD4+ cells and HIV-1-infected cells to form syncytia. As a step to explore the potential utility of the anti-HIV antibody in vivo, we have constructed a mouse-human chimeric antibody by rDNA techniques. The chimeric antibody, which bears the variable domains of mouse antibody BAT123 and constant domains Cr1 and C kappa of human Ig retains the Ag specificity of BAT123 as determined by its reactivity with HIV-1-infected H9 cells, gp120 in Western blot analysis, and the oligopeptide recognized by BAT123. The antiviral activities of the chimeric antibody in neutralizing HIV-1 infection as well as inhibiting the syncytia formation are also found identical to those of the parent murine antibody. Moreover, in the presence of human blood mononuclear cells, the chimeric antibody but not BAT123 (mouse IgG1) induces antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. The findings point to the potential usefulness of the chimeric antibody in treating patients infected with HIV-1.  相似文献
8.
9.
Malignant transformation of the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) accounts for most ovarian carcinoma. Detection of preneoplastic changes in the OSE leading to overt malignancy is important in prevention and management of ovarian cancer. We identified OSE proteins with altered expression derived from women with a family history (FH) of ovarian and/or breast cancer and mutations in the BRCA1 tumor suppressor gene. Proteins from SV-40-transformed FH-OSE cell lines and control OSE lines derived from women without such histories (non-family history) were separated by two-dimensional PAGE. Gels were analyzed, a protein data base was created, and proteins were characterized according to their molecular weight, isoelectric point, and relative abundance. Mass spectrometry was performed on tryptic protein digests, and data bases were searched for known proteins with the same theoretical tryptic peptide masses. Several proteins showed altered expression in the FH-OSE cells. Beta-tubulin and to a lesser extent ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase and glyoxalase 1 appeared to be up-regulated. In contrast, proteins suppressed in FH lines include the 27-kDa heat shock protein, translationally controlled tumor protein, and several proteins associated with actin modification such as actin prepeptide, F-actin capping protein alpha subunit, and cofilin. Sequencing of several cofilin gel spots revealed phosphorylation of serine 3, a post-translational modification associated with decreased actin binding and cytoskeletal reorganization. Two-dimensional Western blots probed with cofilin antibody showed multiple protein spots with isoelectric points of 6-9 pH units. Blots of one-dimensional gels showed a significant reduction in cofilin expression in three FH lines when compared with three non-family history lines (p < or = 0.05). Identification of these and other OSE proteins may be useful in detecting changes suggestive of increased risk of developing preneoplastic disease and defining the possible role(s) of the BRCA1 gene in regulation of OSE cell function.  相似文献
10.
A murine mAb BAT123 (Ab1) directing to the principal neutralization site of human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV)-IIIB gp120 (amino acid residue 308-322) was used to generate syngeneic anti-Id mAb (Ab2). Among the Ab2, a mAb AB19-4 was characterized by both serologic and biologic methods to be paratope-specific (Ab2 beta), bearing the internal image of the neutralization site. AB19-4 was found to bind specifically to BAT123 and also to its mouse-human chimeric form in ELISA. The binding of AB19-4 to BAT123 was specifically inhibited by HTLV-IIIB gp120 and the synthetic epitope peptides of HTLV-IIIB and HTLV-IIIMN defined by BAT123. AB19-4 also inhibited the binding of BAT123 to HTLV-IIIB-infected H9 cells in flow cytometric studies. Polyclonal goat and sheep antisera against HTLV-IIIB gp120 reacted specifically with AB19-4, suggesting that AB19-4 may recognize cross-species idiotopes. Rabbits immunized with purified AB19-4 generated anti-anti-Id antibodies (Ab3) that reacted specifically with HTLV-IIIB gp120 and the BAT123-binding epitope peptides of HTLV-IIIB and HTLV-IIIMN. The Ab3 bound to H9 cells infected by HTLV-IIIB or HTLV-IIIMN and inhibited the infection of CEM cells by HTLV-IIIB or HTLV-IIIMN, whereas BAT123 also bound H9 cells infected by HTLV-IIIB or HTLV-IIIMN but neutralized only HTLV-IIIB. Our data suggest that AB19-4 mimics the neutralization site on HIV-1 gp120 defined by BAT123. The induction of immunity to HIV using internal-image Ab2 to HIV-neutralizing antibodies may provide a viable approach for developing effective vaccines for AIDS.  相似文献
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