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排序方式: 共有71条查询结果,搜索用时 50 毫秒
1.
Lee T  Luo L 《Neuron》1999,22(3):451-461
We describe a genetic mosaic system in Drosophila, in which a dominant repressor of a cell marker is placed in trans to a mutant gene of interest. Mitotic recombination events between homologous chromosomes generate homozygous mutant cells, which are exclusively labeled due to loss of the repressor. Using this system, we are able to visualize axonal projections and dendritic elaboration in large neuroblast clones and single neuron clones with a membrane-targeted GFP marker. This new method allows for the study of gene functions in neuroblast proliferation, axon guidance, and dendritic elaboration in the complex central nervous system. As an example, we show that the short stop gene is required in mushroom body neurons for the extension and guidance of their axons.  相似文献
2.
Generation and flanking sequence analysis of a rice T-DNA tagged population   总被引:26,自引:0,他引:26  
Insertional mutagenesis provides a rapid way to clone a mutated gene. Transfer DNA (T-DNA) of Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been proven to be a successful tool for gene discovery in Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica). Here, we report the generation of 5,200 independent T-DNA tagged rice lines. The T-DNA insertion pattern in the rice genome was investigated, and an initial database was constructed based on T-DNA flanking sequences amplified from randomly selected T-DNA tagged rice lines using Thermal Asymmetric Interlaced PCR (TAIL-PCR). Of 361 T-DNA flanking sequences, 92 showed long T-DNA integration (T-DNA together with non-T-DNA). Another 55 sequences showed complex integration of T-DNA into the rice genome. Besides direct integration, filler sequences and microhomology (one to several nucleotides of homology) were observed between the T-DNA right border and other portions of the vector pCAMBIA1301 in transgenic rice. Preferential insertion of T-DNA into protein-coding regions of the rice genome was detected. Insertion sites mapped onto rice chromosomes were scattered in the genome. Some phenotypic mutants were observed in the T1 generation of the T-DNA tagged plants. Our mutant population will be useful for studying T-DNA integration patterns and for analyzing gene function in rice.Electronic Supplementary Material Supplementary material is available in the online version of this article at .Communicated by D. Mackill  相似文献
3.
The activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) specifies the ability of the trophoblast cell to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) substrates. Usually the process of normal human placentation involves a coordinated interaction between the fetal-derived trophoblast cells and their microenvironment in the uterus. In this study, the effects of ECM proteins on the expression of MMP-2, -9, and -14 (membrane-type MMP-1); and the production of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP) types -1, -2, and -3 have been investigated. Cytotrophoblast cells at 9 or 10 wk of gestation were cultured on various ECM coated dishes under serum-free conditions. Gelatin zymography analysis showed that cells grown on fibronectin (FN), laminin (LN), and vitronectin (VN) secreted more MMP-9 (about 1.5- to 3-fold more) than cells cultured on collagen I (Col I), whereas the secretion of MMP-9 by cells cultured on collagen IV (Col IV) was only half that by the cells on Col I. Northern Blot analysis gave the same results as zymography, indicating that expression of the MMP-9 gene in cytotrophoblast cells can be affected by matrix proteins. There was no significant difference in the expression of MMP-2 either at protein or mRNA levels among the cells cultured on the different matrix substrates. The expression of MMP-14 was regulated in a manner similar to that of MMP-2. Using ELISA, we detected higher levels of TIMP-1 in the culture medium of cells grown on VN, LN, and FN compared with that grown on Col I. But the expression of TIMP-3 mRNA was remarkably inhibited by VN, and ECM proteins had no effect on TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 mRNA expression. It was also observed that cultured cytotrophoblast cells expressed the corresponding receptors for the tested matrix proteins, such as integrins alpha(1), alpha(5), alpha(6), beta(1), and beta(4). Furthermore, the adhesiveness of cytotrophoblast cells on Col I, Col IV, FN, and LN was increased by 62%, 45%, 21%, and 22%, respectively, when compared with adhesiveness on VN. Isolated cytotrophoblast cells remained stationary when cultured on dishes coated with Col I and Col IV, but they assumed a more motile morphology and aggregated into a network when cultured on LN and VN. These data indicate that human trophoblast cells interact with their microenvironment to control their behavior and function.  相似文献
4.
柠檬醛对黄曲霉质膜损伤机制的初步研究   总被引:19,自引:3,他引:16       下载免费PDF全文
与正常生长的黄曲霉对照 ,通过测定经柠檬醛毒化的菌丝体对还原糖和蛋白质利用率、[Na+ ,K+ ] ATPase分解ATP活性、细胞电解质渗出率、并结合扫描电镜和快速显微多道分光光度法观察菌丝体细胞及孢子形态变化 ,结果表明经该醛MIC毒化后 ,菌丝体细胞及孢子表面疏松而粗糙 ;隘痕缩小并关闭 ;电导率增加 5 2 8% ;对还原糖和蛋白质的利用速率分别下降 6 1 5 %和 44 3 % ;孢子萌发率下降至 6 1 4% ;该醛能明显改变细胞质膜的分子结构 ,使其失去选择通透性而抑制菌丝体生长和孢子萌发率。  相似文献
5.
Li ZK  Luo LJ  Mei HW  Wang DL  Shu QY  Tabien R  Zhong DB  Ying CS  Stansel JW  Khush GS  Paterson AH 《Genetics》2001,158(4):1737-1753
To understand the genetic basis of inbreeding depression and heterosis in rice, main-effect and epistatic QTL associated with inbreeding depression and heterosis for grain yield and biomass in five related rice mapping populations were investigated using a complete RFLP linkage map of 182 markers, replicated phenotyping experiments, and the mixed model approach. The mapping populations included 254 F(10) recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between Lemont (japonica) and Teqing (indica) and two BC and two testcross hybrid populations derived from crosses between the RILs and their parents plus two testers (Zhong 413 and IR64). For both BY and GY, there was significant inbreeding depression detected in the RI population and a high level of heterosis in each of the BC and testcross hybrid populations. The mean performance of the BC or testcross hybrids was largely determined by their heterosis measurements. The hybrid breakdown (part of inbreeding depression) values of individual RILs were negatively associated with the heterosis measurements of their BC or testcross hybrids, indicating the partial genetic overlap of genes causing hybrid breakdown and heterosis in rice. A large number of epistatic QTL pairs and a few main-effect QTL were identified, which were responsible for >65% of the phenotypic variation of BY and GY in each of the populations with the former explaining a much greater portion of the variation. Two conclusions concerning the loci associated with inbreeding depression and heterosis in rice were reached from our results. First, most QTL associated with inbreeding depression and heterosis in rice appeared to be involved in epistasis. Second, most ( approximately 90%) QTL contributing to heterosis appeared to be overdominant. These observations tend to implicate epistasis and overdominance, rather than dominance, as the major genetic basis of heterosis in rice. The implications of our results in rice evolution and improvement are discussed.  相似文献
6.
ADP is the cognate ligand for the orphan G protein-coupled receptor SP1999   总被引:15,自引:0,他引:15  
P2Y receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors activated primarily by ATP, UTP, and UDP. Five mammalian P2Y receptors have been cloned so far including P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4, P2Y6, and P2Y11. P2Y1, P2Y2, and P2Y6 couple to the activation of phospholipase C, whereas P2Y4 and P2Y11 couple to the activation of both phospholipase C and the adenylyl cyclase pathways. Additional ADP receptors linked to Galpha(i) have been described but have not yet been cloned. SP1999 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor, which is highly expressed in brain, spinal cord, and blood platelets. In the present study, we demonstrate that SP1999 is a Galpha(i)-coupled receptor that is potently activated by ADP. In an effort to identify ligands for SP1999, fractionated rat spinal cord extracts were assayed for Ca(2+) mobilization activity against Chinese hamster ovary cells transiently transfected with SP1999 and chimeric Galpha subunits (Galpha(q/i)). A substance that selectively activated SP1999-transfected cells was identified and purified through a series of chromatographic steps. Mass spectral analysis of the purified material definitively identified it as ADP. ADP was subsequently shown to inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity through selective activation of SP1999 with an EC(50) of 60 nM. Other nucleotides were able to activate SP1999 with a rank order of potency 2-MeS-ATP = 2-MeS-ADP > ADP = adenosine 5'-O-2-(thio)diphosphate > 2-Cl-ATP > adenosine 5'-O-(thiotriphosphate). Thus, SP1999 is a novel, Galpha(i)-linked receptor for ADP.  相似文献
7.
To understand the types of gene action controlling seven quantitative traits in rice, QTL mapping was performed to dissect the main effect (M-QTLs) and digenic epistatic (E-QTLs) QTLs responsible for the trait performance of 254 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of "Lemont/Teqing", and two testcross (TC) F(1) populations derived from these RILs. The correlation analyses reveal a general pattern, i.e. trait heritability in the RILs was negatively correlated to trait heterosis in the TC hybrids. A large number of M-QTLs and E-QTLs affecting seven traits, including heading date (HD), plant height (PH), flag leaf length (FLL), flag leaf width (FLW), panicle length (PL), spikelet number per panicle (SN) and spikelet fertility (SF), were identified and could be classified into two predominant groups, additive QTLs detected primarily in the RILs, and overdominant QTLs identified exclusively in the TC populations. There is little overlap between QTLs identified in the RILs and in the TC populations. This result implied that additive gene action is largely independent from non-additive gene action in the genetic control of quantitative traits of rice. The detected E-QTLs collectively explained a much greater portion of the total phenotypic variation than the M-QTLs, supporting prior findings that epistasis has played an important role in the genetic control of quantitative traits in rice. The implications of these results to the development of inbred and hybrid cultivars were discussed.  相似文献
8.
Zhang C  Yu Y  Zhang S  Liu M  Xing G  Wei H  Bi J  Liu X  Zhou G  Dong C  Hu Z  Zhang Y  Luo L  Wu C  Zhao S  He F 《Genomics》2000,63(3):400-408
We have identified and characterized a novel human ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase-activating protein (ARFGAP1) gene that is related to other members of the ARF GAP family. The full-length cDNA for human ARFGAP1 was cloned following the identification of an EST obtained by large-scale cDNA library sequencing through a Blast search of public databases. Structurally, ARFGAP1 encodes a polypeptide of 516 amino acids, which contained a typical GATA-1-type zinc finger motif (CXXCX(16)CXXC) with the four cysteine residues that are highly conserved among other members of the ARF GAP family. The conserved ARF GAP domain may emphasize the biological importance of this gene. The ARFGAP1 gene, which contained 16 exons ranging from 0.5 to 9.3 kb, was mapped to human chromosome 22q13.2-q13.3 using radiation hybridization and in silico analyses. ARFGAP1 is strongly expressed in endocrine glands and testis. Interestingly, the expression of ARFGAP1 in testis is about sixfold higher than that in ovary, indicating a possible role of ARFGAP1 in the physiological function of sperm. Expression of ARFGAP1 in four human fetal tissues and seven cancer cell lines was also detected.  相似文献
9.
A quantitative genetics model for viability selection   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11  
Luo L  Zhang YM  Xu S 《Heredity》2005,94(3):347-355
Viability selection will change gene frequencies of loci controlling fitness. Consequently, the frequencies of marker loci linked to the viability loci will also change. In genetic mapping, the change of marker allelic frequencies is reflected by the departure from Mendelian segregation ratio. The non-Mendelian segregation of markers has been used to map viability loci along the genome. However, current methods have not been able to detect the amount of selection (s) and the degree of dominance (h) simultaneously. We developed a method to detect both s and h using an F2 mating design under the classical fitness model. We also developed a quantitative genetics model for viability selection by proposing a continuous liability controlling the viability of individuals. With the liability model, mapping viability loci has been formulated as mapping quantitative trait loci. As a result, nongenetic systematic environmental effects can be easily incorporated into the model and subsequently separated from the genetic effects of the viability loci. The quantitative genetic model has been verified with a series of Monte Carlo simulation experiments.  相似文献
10.
Luo LJ  Li ZK  Mei HW  Shu QY  Tabien R  Zhong DB  Ying CS  Stansel JW  Khush GS  Paterson AH 《Genetics》2001,158(4):1755-1771
The genetic basis underlying inbreeding depression and heterosis for three grain yield components of rice was investigated in five interrelated mapping populations using a complete RFLP linkage map, replicated phenotyping, and the mixed model approach. The populations included 254 F(10) recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between Lemont (japonica) and Teqing (indica), two backcross (BC) and two testcross populations derived from crosses between the RILs and the parents plus two testers (Zhong413 and IR64). For the yield components, the RILs showed significant inbreeding depression and hybrid breakdown, and the BC and testcross populations showed high levels of heterosis. The average performance of the BC or testcross hybrids was largely determined by heterosis. The inbreeding depression values of individual RILs were negatively associated with the heterosis measurements of the BC or testcross hybrids. We identified many epistatic QTL pairs and a few main-effect QTL responsible for >65% of the phenotypic variation of the yield components in each of the populations. Most epistasis occurred between complementary loci, suggesting that grain yield components were associated more with multilocus genotypes than with specific alleles at individual loci. Overdominance was also an important property of most loci associated with heterosis, particularly for panicles per plant and grains per panicle. Two independent groups of genes appeared to affect grain weight: one showing primarily nonadditive gene action explained 62.1% of the heterotic variation of the trait, and the other exhibiting only additive gene action accounted for 28.1% of the total trait variation of the F(1) mean values. We found no evidence suggesting that pseudo-overdominance from the repulsive linkage of completely or partially dominant QTL for yield components resulted in the overdominant QTL for grain yield. Pronounced overdominance resulting from epistasis expressed by multilocus genotypes appeared to explain the long-standing dilemma of how inbreeding depression could arise from overdominant genes.  相似文献
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