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1.
Liu YJ 《Cell》2001,106(3):259-262
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The effect of shear force on aerobic granulation was studied in four column-type, sequential aerobic sludge blanket reactors. Hydrodynamic turbulence caused by upflow aeration served as the main shear force in the systems. Results showed that aerobic granulation was closely associated with the strength of shear force. Compact and regular aerobic granules were formed in the reactors with a superficial upflow air velocity higher than 1.2 cm s(-1). However, only typical bioflocs were observed in the reactor with a superficial upflow air velocity of 0.3 cm s(-1) during the whole experimental period. The characteristics of the aerobic granules in terms of settling ability, specific gravity, hydrophobicity, polysaccharide and protein content and specific oxygen utilization rate (SOUR) were examined. It was found that the shear force has a positive effect on the production of polysaccharide, SOUR, hydrophobicity of cell surface and specific gravity of granules. The hydrophobicity of granular sludge is much higher than that of bioflocs. Therefore, it appears that hydrophobicity could induce and further strengthen cell-cell interaction and might be the main force for the initiation of granulation. The shear-stimulated production of polysaccharides favors the formation of a stable granular structure. This research provides experimental evidence to show that shear force plays a crucial role in aerobic granulation and further influences the structure and metabolism of granules.  相似文献
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Increased attention has been given to minimization of sludge production from activated sludge process since environmental regulations are being more and more stringent in relation to excess sludge disposal. In a biological process, the more organic carbon utilized in carbon dioxide production, the fewer sludge produced, and vice versa. This paper, therefore, reviews strategies developed for minimization of excess sludge production, such as oxic-settling-anaerobic process, high dissolved oxygen process, uncoupler-containing activated sludge process, ozonation-combined activated sludge process, control of sludge retention time and biodegradation of sludge in membrane-assisted reactor. In these modified activated sludge processes, excess sludge production can be reduced by 20-100% without significant effect on process efficiency and stability. It is expected that this paper would be helpful for researchers and engineers to develop novel and efficient operation strategy to minimize sludge production from biological systems.  相似文献
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Aims:  The effect of high organic loading rate (OLR) on the physical characteristics of aerobic granules was studied.
Methods and Results:  Two column-type sequential aerobic sludge blanket reactors were fed with either glucose or acetate as the main carbon source, and the OLR was gradually raised from 6 to 9, 12 and 15 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) m−3 d−1. Glucose-fed granules could sustain the maximum OLR tested. At a low OLR, these granules exhibited a loose fluffy morphology dominated by filamentous bacteria. At higher OLRs, these granules became irregularly shaped, with folds, crevices and depressions. In contrast, acetate-fed granules had a compact spherical morphology at OLRs of 6 and 9 kg COD m−3 d−1, with better settling and strength characteristics than glucose-fed granules at similar OLRs. However, acetate-fed granules could not sustain high OLRs and disintegrated when the OLR reached 9 kg COD m−3 d−1.
Conclusions:  The compact regular microstructure of the acetate-fed granules appeared to limit mass transfer of nutrients at an OLR of 9 kg COD m−3 d−1. The looser filamentous microstructure of the glucose-fed granules and the subsequent irregular morphology delayed the onset of diffusion limitation and allowed significantly higher OLRs to be attained.
Significance and Impact of the Study:  High organic loading rates are possible with aerobic granules. This research would be helpful in the development of aerobic granule-based systems for high-strength wastewaters.  相似文献
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Characterization of apelin, the ligand for the APJ receptor   总被引:36,自引:0,他引:36  
The apelin peptide was recently discovered and demonstrated to be the endogenous ligand for the G protein-coupled receptor, APJ. A search of the GenBank databases retrieved a rat expressed sequence tag partially encoding the preproapelin sequence. The GenBank search also revealed a human sequence on chromosome Xq25-26.1, containing the gene encoding preproapelin. We have used the rat sequence to screen a rat brain cDNA library to obtain a cDNA encoding the full-length open reading frame of rat preproapelin. This cDNA encoded a protein of 77 amino acids, sharing an identity of 82% with human preproapelin. Northern and in situ hybridization analyses revealed both human and rat apelin and APJ to be expressed in the brain and periphery. Both sequence and mRNA expression distribution analyses revealed similarities between apelin and angiotensin II, suggesting they that share related physiological roles. A synthetic apelin peptide was injected intravenously into male Wistar rats, resulting in immediate lowering of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, which persisted for several minutes. Intraperitoneal apelin injections induced an increase in drinking behavior within the first 30 min after injection, with a return to baseline within 1 h.  相似文献
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Junction adhesion molecule is a receptor for reovirus   总被引:31,自引:0,他引:31  
Virus attachment to cells plays an essential role in viral tropism and disease. Reovirus serotypes 1 and 3 differ in the capacity to target distinct cell types in the murine nervous system and in the efficiency to induce apoptosis. The binding of viral attachment protein sigma1 to unidentified receptors controls these phenotypes. We used expression cloning to identify junction adhesion molecule (JAM), an integral tight junction protein, as a reovirus receptor. JAM binds directly to sigma1 and permits reovirus infection of nonpermissive cells. Ligation of JAM is required for reovirus-induced activation of NF-kappaB and apoptosis. Thus, reovirus interaction with cell-surface receptors is a critical determinant of both cell-type specific tropism and virus-induced intracellular signaling events that culminate in cell death.  相似文献
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Pertussis toxin catalyzes the transfer of ADP-ribose from NAD to the guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins Gi, Go, and transducin. Based on a partial amino acid sequence for a tryptic peptide of ADP-ribosylated transducin, asparagine had been characterized as the site of pertussis toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation. Subsequently, cDNA data for the alpha subunit of transducin indicated that the putative asparagine residue was, in fact, not present in the protein. To determine the amino acid that served as the ADP-ribose acceptor, radiolabel from [adenine-U-14C]NAD was incorporated, in the presence of pertussis toxin, into the alpha subunit of transducin (0.3 mol/mol). An ADP-ribosylated, tryptic peptide was purified and fully sequenced by automated Edman degradation. The amino acid sequence, Glu-Asn 343-Leu-Lys-Asp 346-X-Gly 348-Leu-Phe, corresponds to the cDNA sequence coding the carboxyl-terminal nonapeptide, Glu 342-Phe 350, which includes by cDNA sequence cysteine at position 347. Neither Asn 343 nor Asp 346 appeared to be modified; residue 347 adhered to the sequencing resin. Cysteine, the missing residue, was eluted from the sequencing resin with acetic acid along with 76% of the peptide-associated radioactivity, half of which, presumably ADP-ribosylcysteine, eluted from an anion exchange column between NAD and ADP-ribose; the other half had a retention time corresponding to 5'-AMP. We conclude that Cys 347 and not Asn 343 or Asp 346 is the site of pertusis toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation in transducin.  相似文献
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IFNs are a family of cytokines with pleiotropic biological effects mediated by scores of responsive genes. IFNs were the first human proteins to be effective in cancer therapy and were among the first recombinant DNA products to be used clinically. Both quality and quantity of life has been improved in response to IFNs in various malignancies. Despite its beneficial effects, unraveling the mechanisms of the anti-tumor effects of IFN has proven to be a complex task. IFNs may mediate anti-tumor effects either indirectly by modulating immunomodulatory and anti-angiogenic responses or by directly affecting proliferation or cellular differentiation of tumor cells. Both direct or indirect effects of IFNs result from induction of a subset of genes, called IFN stimulated genes (ISGs). In addition to the ISGs implicated in anti-viral, anti-angiogenic, immunomodulatory and cell cycle inhibitory effects, oligonucleotide microarray studies have identified ISGs with apoptotic functions. These include TNF- related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL/Apo2L), Fas/FasL, XIAP associated factor-1 (XAF-1), caspase-4, caspase-8, dsRNA activated protein kinase (PKR), 2'5'A oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS), death activating protein kinases (DAP kinase), phospholipid scramblase, galectin 9, IFN regulatory factors (IRFs), promyelocytic leukemia gene (PML) and regulators of IFN induced death (RIDs). In vitro IFN-, IFN- and IFN- induced apoptosis in multiple cell lines of varied histologies. This review will emphasize possible mechanisms and the role of ISGs involved in mediating apoptotic function of IFNs.  相似文献
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