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1.
Non-photochemical quenching. A response to excess light energy   总被引:50,自引:0,他引:50  
Müller P  Li XP  Niyogi KK 《Plant physiology》2001,125(4):1558-1566
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Phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10 occurs during mitosis and meiosis in a wide range of eukaryotes and has been shown to be required for proper chromosome transmission in Tetrahymena. Here we report that Ipl1/aurora kinase and its genetically interacting phosphatase, Glc7/PP1, are responsible for the balance of H3 phosphorylation during mitosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Caenorhabditis elegans. In these models, both enzymes are required for H3 phosphorylation and chromosome segregation, although a causal link between the two processes has not been demonstrated. Deregulation of human aurora kinases has been implicated in oncogenesis as a consequence of chromosome missegregation. Our findings reveal an enzyme system that regulates chromosome dynamics and controls histone phosphorylation that is conserved among diverse eukaryotes.  相似文献
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The association of pericytes (PCs) to newly formed blood vessels has been suggested to regulate endothelial cell (EC) proliferation, survival, migration, differentiation, and vascular branching. Here, we addressed these issues using PDGF-B-- and PDGF receptor-beta (PDGFR-beta)--deficient mice as in vivo models of brain angiogenesis in the absence of PCs. Quantitative morphological analysis showed that these mutants have normal microvessel density, length, and number of branch points. However, absence of PCs correlates with endothelial hyperplasia, increased capillary diameter, abnormal EC shape and ultrastructure, changed cellular distribution of certain junctional proteins, and morphological signs of increased transendothelial permeability. Brain endothelial hyperplasia was observed already at embryonic day (E) 11.5 and persisted throughout development. From E 13.5, vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and other genes responsive to metabolic stress became upregulated, suggesting that the abnormal microvessel architecture has systemic metabolic consequences. VEGF-A upregulation correlated temporally with the occurrence of vascular abnormalities in the placenta and dilation of the heart. Thus, although PC deficiency appears to have direct effects on EC number before E 13.5, the subsequent increased VEGF-A levels may further abrogate microvessel architecture, promote vascular permeability, and contribute to formation of the edematous phenotype observed in late gestation PDGF-B and PDGFR-beta knock out embryos.  相似文献
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The alloimmune response against fully MHC-mismatched allografts, compared with immune responses to nominal antigens, entails an unusually large clonal size of alloreactive T cells. Thus, induction of peripheral allograft tolerance established in the absence of immune system ablation and reconstitution is a challenging task in transplantation. Here, we determined whether a reduction in the mass of alloreactive T cells due to apoptosis is an essential initial step for induction of stable allograft tolerance with non-lymphoablative therapy. Blocking both CD28-B7 and CD40-CD40 ligand interactions (co-stimulation blockade) inhibited proliferation of alloreactive T cells in vivo while allowing cell cycle-dependent T-cell apoptosis of proliferating T cells, with permanent engraftment of cardiac allografts but not skin allografts. Treatment with rapamycin plus co-stimulation blockade resulted in massive apoptosis of alloreactive T cells and produced stable skin allograft tolerance, a very stringent test of allograft tolerance. In contrast, treatment with cyclosporine A and co-stimulation blockade abolished T-cell proliferation and apoptosis, as well as the induction of stable allograft tolerance. Our data indicate that induction of T-cell apoptosis and peripheral allograft tolerance is prevented by blocking both signal 1 and signal 2 of T-cell activation.  相似文献
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Akt regulates cell survival and apoptosis at a postmitochondrial level   总被引:26,自引:0,他引:26  
Phosphoinositide 3 kinase/Akt pathway plays an essential role in neuronal survival. However, the cellular mechanisms by which Akt suppresses cell death and protects neurons from apoptosis remain unclear. We previously showed that transient expression of constitutively active Akt inhibits ceramide-induced death of hybrid motor neuron 1 cells. Here we show that stable expression of either constitutively active Akt or Bcl-2 inhibits apoptosis, but only Bcl-2 prevents the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, suggesting that Akt regulates apoptosis at a postmitochondrial level. Consistent with this, overexpressing active Akt rescues cells from apoptosis without altering expression levels of endogenous Bcl-2, Bcl-x, or Bax. Akt inhibits apoptosis induced by microinjection of cytochrome c and lysates from cells expressing active Akt inhibit cytochrome c induced caspase activation in a cell-free assay while lysates from Bcl-2-expressing cells have no effect. Addition of cytochrome c and dATP to lysates from cells expressing active Akt do not activate caspase-9 or -3 and immunoprecipitated Akt added to control lysates blocks cytochrome c-induced activation of the caspase cascade. Taken together, these data suggest that Akt inhibits activation of caspase-9 and -3 by posttranslational modification of a cytosolic factor downstream of cytochrome c and before activation of caspase-9.  相似文献
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Sequence complexity of disordered protein   总被引:25,自引:0,他引:25  
Intrinsic disorder refers to segments or to whole proteins that fail to self-fold into fixed 3D structure, with such disorder sometimes existing in the native state. Here we report data on the relationships among intrinsic disorder, sequence complexity as measured by Shannon's entropy, and amino acid composition. Intrinsic disorder identified in protein crystal structures, and by nuclear magnetic resonance, circular dichroism, and prediction from amino acid sequence, all exhibit similar complexity distributions that are shifted to lower values compared to, but significantly overlapping with, the distribution for ordered proteins. Compared to sequences from ordered proteins, these variously characterized intrinsically disordered segments and proteins, and also a collection of low-complexity sequences, typically have obviously higher levels of protein-specific subsets of the following amino acids: R, K, E, P, and S, and lower levels of subsets of the following: C, W, Y, I, and V. The Swiss Protein database of sequences exhibits significantly higher amounts of both low-complexity and predicted-to-be-disordered segments as compared to a non-redundant set of sequences from the Protein Data Bank, providing additional data that nature is richer in disordered and low-complexity segments compared to the commonness of these features in the set of structurally characterized proteins.  相似文献
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Yang YL  Li XM 《Cell research》2000,10(3):169-177
IAPs (inhibitors of apoptosis) are a family of proteins containing one or more characteristic BIR domains.These proteins have multiple biological activities that include binding and inhibiting caspases,regulating cell cycle progression,and modulating receptor-mediated signal transduction.Our recent studies found the IAP family members XIAP and c-IAP1 are ubiquitinated and degraded in proteasomes in response to apoptotic stimuli in T cells,and their degradation appears to be important for T cells to commit to death.In addition to three BIR domains,each of these IAPs also contains a RING finger domain. We found this region confers ubiquitin protease ligase(E3) activity to IAPs,and is responsible for the auto-ubiquitination and degradation of IAPs after an apoptotic stimulus.Given the fact that IAPs can bind a variety of proteins,such as caspases and TRAFs,it will be of interest to characterize potential substrates of the E3 activity of IAPs and the effects of ubiquitination by IAPs on signal transduction,cell cycle,and apoptosis.  相似文献
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