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We recently described a soluble cell-free system derived from monkey cells that is capable of replicating exogenous plasmid DNA molecules containing the simian virus 40 (SV40) origin of replication (J.J. Li, and T.J. Kelly, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 81:6973-6977, 1984). Replication in the system is completely dependent upon the addition of the SV40 large T antigen. In this report we describe additional properties of the in vitro replication reaction. Extracts prepared from cells of several nonsimian species were tested for the ability to support origin-dependent replication in the presence of T antigen. The activities of extracts derived from human cell lines HeLa and 293 were approximately the same as those of monkey cell extracts. Chinese hamster ovary cell extracts also supported SV40 DNA replication in vitro, but the extent of replication was approximately 1% of that observed with human or monkey cell extracts. No replication activity was detectable in extracts derived from BALB/3T3 mouse cells. The ability of these extracts to support replication in vitro closely parallels the ability of the same cells to support replication in vivo. We also examined the ability of various DNA molecules containing sequences homologous to the SV40 origin to serve as templates in the cell-free system. Plasmids containing the origins of human papovaviruses BKV and JCV replicated with an efficiency 10 to 20% of that of plasmids containing the SV40 origin. Plasmids containing Alu repeat sequences (BLUR8) did not support detectable DNA replication in vitro. Circular DNA molecules were found to be the best templates for DNA replication in the cell-free system; however, linear DNA molecules containing the SV40 origin also replicated to a significant extent (10 to 20% of circular molecules). Finally, electron microscopy of replication intermediates demonstrated that the initiation of DNA synthesis in vivo takes place at a unique site corresponding to the in vivo origin and that replication is bidirectional. These findings provide further evidence that replication in the cell-free system faithfully mimics SV40 DNA replication in vivo.  相似文献
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The derivation of subline of CTLL cells that grow in IL-4/B cell stimulatory factor-1 is described. These cells, designated CT.4R cells, were obtained by extended culture of the CTLL line CT.EV in IL-4. CT.4R cells are highly responsive to both IL-4 and IL-2. Mutagenesis of CT.4R cells with ethylmethane sulfonate and selection for lack of expression of the p55 chain of the IL-2R was carried out and a clone was selected that was hyporesponsive to IL-2 but retained full sensitivity to IL-4. These cells, designated CT.4S cells, develop a very meager response to IL-2 at concentrations of 100 U/ml or less although that display vigorous responses to higher IL-2 concentrations. CT.4S cells give measurable responses to 3-10 U/ml (approximately 15-50 pg/ml) of IL-4. CT.4R and CT.4S cells fail to respond to IL-1, IL-3, IL-6, granulocyte-macrophage-CSF, granulocyte-CSF, CSF-1 or IFN-gamma. Thus, CT.4S cells can be used as a sensitive and specific bioassay for IL-4. ID CT.4R cells can be grown in either IL-4 or IL-2. When grown in IL-4, CT.4R cells express small amounts of the p55 chain of the IL-2R but rapidly upregulate their level of expression of p55 when IL-2 is added and rapidly diminish p55 expression when IL-2 is removed. Thus, although IL-2 and IL-4 both stimulate vigorous growth responses by CT.4R cells, they differ in their capacity to induce the expression of the p55 chain implying that their mechanisms of T cell stimulation are not identical.  相似文献
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Study of the proteins involved in DNA replication of a model system such as SV40 is a first step in understanding eukaryotic chromosomal replication. Using a cell-free system that is capable of replicating plasmid DNA molecules containing the SV40 origin of replication, we conducted a series of systematic fractionation-reconstitution experiments for the purpose of identifying and characterizing the cellular proteins involved in SV40 DNA replication. In addition to the one viral-encoded replication protein, T antigen, we have identified and begun to characterize at least six cellular components from a HeLa cytoplasmic extract that are absolutely required for SV40 DNA replication in vitro. These include: (i) two partially purified fractions, CF IC and CF IIA, and (ii) four proteins that have been purified to near homogeneity, replication protein-A, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, DNA polymerase alpha-primase complex, and topoisomerase (I and II). Replication protein-A is a multi-subunit protein that has single-stranded DNA binding activity and is required for a T antigen-dependent, origin-dependent unwinding reaction which may be an important early step in initiation of replication. Fraction CF IC can stimulate this unwinding reaction, suggesting that it also may function during initiation. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen, DNA polymerase alpha-primase, and CF IIA all appear to be involved in elongation of nascent chains.  相似文献
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All presently available replication-competent proviral clones of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are derived from cell culture-amplified virus. Since tissue culture is highly selective for viral strains with an in vitro growth advantage, such clones may not be representative of the biologically relevant virus present in vivo. In this study, we report the molecular cloning and genotypic characterization of 10 HIV-1 genomes directly from uncultured brain tissue of a patient with AIDS dementia complex. Targeting unintegrated circular HIV-1 molecules for recombinant lambda phage cloning, we obtained four full-length genomes with one or two long terminal repeats (LTRs), three defective genomes with internal deletions, two rearranged genomes with inverted LTR sequences, and one integrated proviral half with flanking cellular sequences. Nucleotide sequence analysis of these clones demonstrated chromosomal integration, circle formation, genomic inversion, and LTR-mediated autointegration of HIV-1 genomes in vivo. Comparison of a 510-bp hypervariable envelope region among 8 lambda phage-derived and 12 polymerase chain reaction-derived clones from the same brain specimen identified a predominant viral form as well as genetically divergent variants. Variability among 19 of 20 clones ranged between 0.2 and 1.2%. One clone exhibited 8.2% nucleotide sequence differences consisting almost exclusively of G-to-A changes. Transfection of the four full-length HIV-1 genomes identified one clone (YU-2) as replication competent and exhibiting growth characteristics similar to those of tissue culture-derived macrophage tropic strains of HIV-1. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that replication-competent HIV-1 genomes, complex mixtures of defective viral forms, and chromosomally integrated provirus persist in vivo. In addition, the brain-derived viral clones are expected to prove valuable for future studies of macrophage and neurotropism as well as for the analysis of other viral properties that are subject to in vitro selection pressures.  相似文献
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Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has a variety of actions within the nervous system. While some of the actions of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) on neurons resemble those of CNTF, LIF also has broad actions outside of the nervous system that in many cases mimic those of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Comparison of the tyrosine phosphorylations and gene activations induced by CNTF and LIF in neuron cell lines reveals that they are indistinguishable and also very similar to signaling events that characterize LIF and IL-6 responses in hematopoietic cells. We provide a basis for the overlapping actions of these three factors by demonstrating that the shared CNTF and LIF signaling pathways involve the IL-6 signal transducing receptor component gp130. Thus, the receptor system for CNTF is surprisingly unlike those used by the nerve growth factor family of neurotrophic factors, but is instead related to those used by a subclass of hematopoietic cytokines.  相似文献
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Osteoprotegerin-ligand (OPGL) is a key osteoclast differentiation/activation factor essential for bone remodeling. We report that mice lacking OPGL or its receptor RANK fail to form lobulo-alveolar mammary structures during pregnancy, resulting in death of newborns. Transplantation and OPGL-rescue experiments in opgl-/- and rank-/- pregnant females showed that OPGL acts directly on RANK-expressing mammary epithelial cells. The effects of OPGL are autonomous to epithelial cells. The mammary gland defect in female opgl-/- mice is characterized by enhanced apoptosis and failures in proliferation and PKB activation in lobulo-alveolar buds that can be reversed by recombinant OPGL treatment. These data provide a novel paradigm in mammary gland development and an evolutionary rationale for hormonal regulation and gender bias of osteoporosis in females.  相似文献
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