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1.
In greenhouse studies, we evaluated a commercial formulation of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae and the inoculative release of the thrips-parasitic nematode Thripinema nicklewoodi against western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande infesting potted chrysanthemums. Foliar sprays of S. feltiae applied at 1.25-2.5×103 IJ mL-1 and 1000 - 2000 L ha-1 at 3-day intervals alone (targeting feeding stages) or in combination with soil applications (simultaneously treating non-feeding stages in the soil at the same rates) decreased but did not provide adequate control of thrips in flowering plants artificially infested with a dense population. Similar nematode treatments applied for four to five applications at 6-day intervals in two batches of initially clean chrysanthemums failed to prevent unacceptable damage to flowers and leaves from a dense natural infestation within the greenhouse. Although some IJ survived up to 48 h within flowers and flower buds, few nematode-infected thrips (larvae and adults) were recovered. In studies with T. nicklewoodi (which is not amenable for mass production), the inoculative releases of two parasitized hosts per plant enabled the nematode to become established within existing WFT populations under greenhouse conditions. However, relatively poor transmission and slow speed of kill (nematode primarily suppresses populations through host sterilization) prevented low level inoculations being effective over a single crop cycle. Further studies showed that transmission of T. nicklewoodi persisted for nine host generations, infected up to 83% of adult thrips and provided long-term suppression of discrete caged populations, but only after uneconomically high thrips densities had been reached.  相似文献
2.
Abstract. 1. Sex ratio in the ectoparasitoid, Diglyphus begini (Ashmead), attacking larvae of the dipterous leafminer Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) in glasshouse marigolds, is best depicted by a model where sex ratio varies as a function of host size.
2. Male D. begini progeny are produced in hosts significantly smaller in size than those producing female progeny.
3. Female wasps attack and oviposit on the largest leafminer larvae available and whether a host is large or small depends upon the size of the other hosts attacked.
4. Diglyphus begini females adjust the thre:shold size for the change-over in sex allocation relative to the size of hosts attacked; however, the sex ratio is maintained at between 60% and 70% males.
5. The patterns observed in these glasshouse studies are not due to sex-specific differential mortality or superparasitism.  相似文献
3.
Summary Although it is well established that coexisting heteromyid rodent species forage in different microhabitats, we do not yet know the basis for divergent microhabitat choice. One possibility is that seed harvest rates differ among microhabitats, and each species forages where it can extract seeds most efficiently. Microhabitats vary in several factors that could affect heteromyid foraging efficiency, including seed density, soil organic content and particle size distribution. We have explored the effect of each of these variables on harvest rates of several species feeding from petri dishes containing known densities of millet seeds embedded in soil of known particle size and density. Results indicate that the number of seeds harvested per second increases uniformly with seed density and soil density and decreases with soil particle size. Body size affects these relationships: larger animals have higher harvest rates for a given set of conditions and experience a greater relative change in harvest rate for a give change in conditions. This implies that heteromyids can be expected to exhibit species-specific microhabitat preferences while foraging in nature.  相似文献
4.
5.
The effects of the parasitic phorid fly, Pseudacteon tricuspis Borgmeier, on the competitive interactions between the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, and a native North American ant, Forelius pruinosus (Roger), were investigated in the laboratory. P. tricuspis is a highly host-specific endoparasitoid of S. invicta workers that is currently being reared and released as a biological control agent of S. invicta in the US. We tested the effect of P. tricuspis on the colony growth rate of S. invicta when S. invicta was forced to compete with F. pruinosus for a protein resource (freeze-killed crickets) in laboratory competition arenas. In addition to colony growth rate, we quantified the effect of the phorid flies on the foraging rate of S. invicta. Though S. invicta significantly reduced its foraging rate in the presence of the phorid flies, we did not detect an effect of the flies on colony growth rate. Possible explanations for these results include behavioral compensation by S. invicta for the presence of the flies. We present these laboratory results in light of a literature search indicating that laboratory tests of biological control agent efficacy are good predictors of field efficacy. We conclude that P. tricuspis alone is unlikely to suppress S. invicta populations in the field by reducing their competitive ability.  相似文献
6.
Indigenous natural enemies occur within field grown crops at varying densities dependent upon a variety of other biotic and abiotic parameters. This natural control often does not provide adequate suppression, which results in the application of other pest management solutions including augmentative biological control. When releasing mass-reared natural enemies into a backdrop of existing natural enemy populations, competitive interactions are likely to occur. To assess the influence of these interspecific interactions on the outcome of such biological control practices studies were conducted in a simulated, field cage grown, cut chrysanthemum production system. Competitive interactions of two commercially available parasitoids were studied both in terms of parasitoid-host population dynamics and the impact of interspecific interactions on crop quality at harvest. The parasitoids Diglyphus isaea and Dacnusa sibirica attacking the leafminer Liriomyza langei were used as the model insect system. Both parasitoids are cosmopolitan and are known to occur in many ornamental production areas. Treatment comparisons included single species releases with complimentary releases of both species either simultaneously or with 2-week time lags, as well as a no release control to measure the background effects of natural mortality. Conclusions drawn from results of population-level studies replicated within and among years were that levels of interspecific competition among parasitoid species were undetectable at leafminer densities typical of field-grown ornamental crops (low densities), and thus, the efficacy of one species released into a backdrop of potentially competing parasitoids did not negatively or positively affect the outcome of the augmentative biological control, nor was there a positive outcome; however, crop quality at harvest was influenced.  相似文献
7.
The ovipositional patterns of the heteronomous hyperparasitoid Encarsia pergandiella Howard (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) in the presence of its primary host Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), and in the presence or absence of conspecific and heterospecific secondary hosts (Encarsia formosa Gahan andEretmocerus mundus Mercet; Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) were examined to assess host species preferences. Host preferences by heteronomous hyperparasitoids may affect the relative abundance of co-occurring parasitoid species and may influence host population suppression by the parasitoid community. Four combinations of hosts were tested: (1) B. argentifolii, E. mundus, and E. formosa, (2) B. argentifolii, E. formosa, and E. pergandiella, (3) B. argentifolii, E. mundus, and E. pergandiella, and, (4) B. argentifolii, E. mundus, E. formosa, and E. pergandiella. Arrays of hosts (24) were constructed in Petri dishes using leaf disks, each bearing one host. Thirty arrays of each host combination were exposed to single females for 6 h. All hosts were dissected to determine number of eggs per host. Encarsia pergandiella parasitized E. formosa hosts as frequently as E. mundus hosts. However, E. pergandiella parasitized either of these heterospecific hosts more frequently than conspecific hosts in treatments including two secondary host species. When a third parasitoid species was included in host arrays, E. pergandiella parasitized conspecific hosts as frequently as heterospecific hosts. Developmental stage of the hosts did not significantly influence host species selection by E. pergandiella. Our results indicate that host selection and oviposition by heteronomous hyperparasitoids like E. pergandiella, vary with the composition of hosts available for parasitization, and suggest a preference for heterospecific over conspecific secondary hosts.  相似文献
8.
Recombinant baculoviruses have been genetically engineered to reduce the time to kill infected pests, thus reducing crop damage. In this study, wild-type viruses and recombinant viruses expressing a scorpion toxin were applied to cotton in response to larval infestations of Helicoverpa zea and Heliothis virescens in 1997 and 1998. A chemical standard and an untreated control acted as comparison treatments. The goals of this field study were to (1) assess the efficacy of recombinant baculoviruses in protecting cotton from larval feeding damage; (2) assess the impact of recombinant virus introductions on predator densities and diversity; and (3) determine if cotton predators acquire baculovirus by consuming infected heliothines. When applications were timed at larval emergence, certain recombinant virus treatments protected cotton from damage better than wild-type virus treatments and as well as the chemical standard. Differences in efficacy between recombinant and wild-type baculoviruses were not apparent if treatments were applied 3 to 4 days after peak larval emergence. Predator densities and diversity were similar among recombinant and wild-type baculovirus treatments, whereas plots treated with the chemical standard had consistently smaller predator populations. From polymerase chain reaction analyses of predators in 1997 and 1998, 1.7 and 0.2%, respectively, of predators had consumed a virus-infected heliothine. Nine of the 26 predators carrying viral DNA were positive for recombinant virus. Additionally, 13 of the 26 predators were found to disperse 13.5 to 105 m 2 to 5 days after initial virus applications. Five of these dispersing predators (0.2% of all predators evaluated) carried recombinant viral DNA. These results suggest that the potential for the inadvertent spread of recombinant viral DNA via dispersing predators is low.  相似文献
9.
In 1992 and 1993, field evaluations were conducted to determine the efficacy of Delphastus catalinae (Horn) releases for the suppression of Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring infesting cotton in the Imperial Valley of California. Augmentative releases of adult beetles, totaling 3.5 and 5.5 beetles per plant for 1992 and 1993, respectively, were made into four 0.2-hectare cotton plots and four exclusion cages covering 40 cotton plants. Equal numbers of field plots and cages served as controls for the D. catalinae releases. Open field evaluations revealed no significant difference in the whitefly densities between the release and the nonrelease fields. In addition, no differences in plant growth measures were detected in the year that these data were collected. Releases of D. catalinae into whitefly exclusion cages resulted in a 55% and a 67% decrease in whitefly densities in 1992 and 1993, respectively. Observational data suggested that intraguild predation on D. catalinae by the existing predator fauna may have limited the potential for D. catalinae to provide biological whitefly control in open field plots relative to the levels observed within the cages. Releases of D. catalinae did not adversely affect population densities of indigenous parasitoids, suggesting an absence of statistically significant, antagonistic predator–parasitoid interactions.  相似文献
10.
Genetically engineered baculoviruses, relative to their wild-type progenitors, have successfully improved the time-to-kill of these arthropod-specific biopesticides. Beneficial arthropods that prey on targeted pest insects are likely the first nontarget organisms to be adversely affected by the applications of such biopesticides. The goals of this project were to assess potential risks of the recombinant baculoviruses on Solenopsis invicta, Geocoris punctipes, and Hippodamia convergens, all of which are common predators of heliothines in Texas cotton. Four recombinant Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis viruses (AcNPV), one Helicoverpa zea nuclear polyhedrosis virus (HzNPV), and two corresponding wild-type NPVs were used in this risk assessment study. Risks associated with these baculoviruses were determined by possible shifts in predator life history traits (rate of food consumption, travel speed, fecundity, and survival) when fed prey infected with recombinant viruses compared to prey infected with wild-type viruses or to healthy prey. We also tested for possible transmission of these viruses by predators using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). No significant shifts in life history characteristics were detected in predators fed Heliothis virescens larvae infected with any of the seven viruses. Viral DNA was discovered using PCR in 2.3% of fire ant workers, but not from any of the queens or eggs. In G. punctipes, 13.4% of adults and 0.5% of eggs scored positive for viruses. Twelve percent of H. convergens adults were found PCR positive. Residency in all three predators tested provides a pathway which could increase the persistence of recombinant viral particles in the environment and thus may produce an indeterminable amount of risk associated with their inadvertent movement.  相似文献
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