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排序方式: 共有1004条查询结果,搜索用时 93 毫秒
1.
Bone-marrow minimal residual disease (MRD) causes relapse after chemotherapy in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). We postulate that the drug resistance is induced by the attachment of very late antigen (VLA)-4 on leukemic cells to fibronectin on bone-marrow stromal cells. We found that VLA-4-positive cells acquired resistance to anoikis (loss of anchorage) or drug-induced apoptosis through the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI-3K)/AKT/Bcl-2 signaling pathway, which is activated by the interaction of VLA-4 and fibronectin. This resistance was negated by VLA-4-specific antibodies. In a mouse model of MRD, we achieved a 100% survival rate by combining VLA-4-specific antibodies and cytosine arabinoside (AraC), whereas AraC alone prolonged survival only slightly. In addition, overall survival at 5 years was 100% for 10 VLA-4-negative patients and 44.4% for 15 VLA-4-positive patients. Thus, the interaction between VLA-4 on leukemic cells and fibronectin on stromal cells may be crucial in bone marrow MRD and AML prognosis.  相似文献
2.
Extracellularly secreted plant peroxidases (POXs) are considered to catalyze the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) coupled to oxidation of plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and defense-related compounds salicylic acid (SA), aromatic monoamines (AMAs) and chitooligosaccharides (COSs). This review article consists of two parts, which describe H(2)O(2)-dependent and H(2)O(2)-independent mechanisms for ROS generation, respectively. Recent studies have shown that plant POXs oxidize SA, AMAs and COSs in the presence of H(2)O(2) via a conventional POX cycle, yielding the corresponding radical species, such as SA free radicals. These radical species may react with oxygen, and superoxide (O(2)(.-)) is produced. Through the series of reactions 2 moles of O(2)(.-) can be formed from 1 moles of H(2)O(2), thus leading to oxidative burst. It has been revealed that the ROS induced by SA, AMAs and COSs triggers the increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. Actually POXs transduce the extracellular signals into the redox signals that eventually stimulate the intracellular Ca(2+) signaling required for induction of defense responses. On the other hand, IAA can react with oxygen and plant POXs in the absence of H(2)O(2), by forming the ternary complex enzyme-IAA-O(2), which readily dissociates into enzyme, IAA radicals and O(2)(.-). This article covers the recent reports showing that extracellularly produced hydroxy radicals derived from O(2)(.-) mediate the IAA-induced cell elongation. Here a novel model for IAA signaling pathway mediated by extracellular ROS produced by cell-wall POXs is proposed. In addition, possible controls of the IAA-POX reactions by a fungal alkaloid are discussed.  相似文献
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4.
Addition of salicylic acid (SA) to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)suspension culture immediately induced a rapid and transientgeneration of superoxide anion (O2), followed by a transientincrease in cytosolic free calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]c).The level of SA-induced O2 was lowered by treatment withseveral scavengers of active oxygen species and a peroxidaseinhibitor, but not with an NADPH oxidase inhibitor. The SA-induced[Ca2+]c elevation was also lowered by inhibitors which effectivelylowered the O2 level. Inhibition of [Ca2+]c elevationby Ca2+ channel blockers and a Ca2+ chelator indicated thatextracellular Ca2+ was responsible for the increased [Ca2+]c.Among the several SA analogs, only compounds that actively inducedthe O2 generation also elevated [Ca2+]cIn addition, theinhibitory effects of SA analogs on catalase activity correlatedwell with their effects on the O2 generation and the[Ca2+]c elevation. SA-dependent O2 generation was shownto occur extracellularly, requiring both H2O2 and at least oneproteinaceous factor excreted from the cells. This factor wasdetermined to be a salicylhydroxamic acid-sensitive extracellularguaiacol-utilizing peroxidase. 4Present address: Isehara Research Laboratory, Kanto ChemicalCo., Inc., Suzukawa, Isehara, 259-1146 Japan.  相似文献
5.
This study compared pathophysiological and biochemical indexes of acute lung injury in a saline-lavaged rabbit model with different ventilatory strategies: a control group consisting of moderate tidal volume (V(T)) (10-12 ml/kg) and low positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (4-5 cmH(2)O); and three protective groups: 1) low V(T) (5-6 ml/kg) high PEEP, 2-3 cmH(2)O greater than the lower inflection point; 2) low V(T) (5-6 ml/kg), high PEEP (8-10 cmH(2)O); and 3) high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV). The strategy using PEEP > inflection point resulted in hypotension and barotrauma. HFOV attenuated the decrease in pulmonary compliance, the lung inflammation assessed by polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration and tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentration in the alveolar space, and pathological changes of the small airways and alveoli. Conventional mechanical ventilation using lung protection strategies (low V(T) high PEEP) only attenuated the decrease in oxygenation and pulmonary compliance. Therefore, HFOV may be a preferable option as a lung protection strategy.  相似文献
6.
Genetic determinants of dengue type 4 virus neurovirulence for mice.   总被引:17,自引:7,他引:10       下载免费PDF全文
H Kawano  V Rostapshov  L Rosen    C J Lai 《Journal of virology》1993,67(11):6567-6575
Mouse-adapted dengue type 4 virus (DEN4) strain H241 is highly neurovirulent for mice, whereas its non-mouse-adapted parent is rarely neurovirulent. The genetic basis for the neurovirulence of the mouse-adapted mutant was studied by comparing intratypic chimeric viruses that contained the three structural protein genes from the parental virus or the neurovirulent mutant in the background sequence of nonneurovirulent DEN4 strain 814669. The chimera that contained the three structural protein genes from mouse neurovirulent DEN4 strain H241 proved to be highly neurovirulent in mice, whereas the chimera that contained the corresponding genes from its non-mouse-adapted parent was not neurovirulent. This finding indicates that most of the genetic loci for the neurovirulence of the DEN4 mutant lie within the structural protein genes. A comparison of the amino acid sequences of the parent and its mouse neurovirulent mutant proteins revealed that there were only five amino acid differences in the structural protein region, and three of these were located in the envelope (E) glycoprotein. Analysis of chimeras which contained one or two of the variant amino acids of the mutant E sequence substituting for the corresponding sequence of the parental virus identified two of these amino acid changes as important determinants of mouse neurovirulence. First, the single substitution of Ile for Thr-155 which ablated one of the two conserved glycosylation sites in parental E yielded a virus that was almost as neurovirulent as the mouse-adapted mutant. Thus, the loss of an E glycosylation site appears to play a role in DEN4 neurovirulence. Second, the substitution of Leu for Phe-401 also yielded a neurovirulent virus, but it was less neurovirulent than the glycosylation mutant. These findings indicate that at least two of the genetic loci responsible for DEN4 mouse neurovirulence map within the structural protein genes.  相似文献
7.
Rho-associated kinase (Rho-kinase), which is activated by the small GTPase Rho, phosphorylates myosin-binding subunit (MBS) of myosin phosphatase and thereby inactivates the phosphatase activity in vitro. Rho-kinase is thought to regulate the phosphorylation state of the substrates including myosin light chain (MLC), ERM (ezrin/radixin/moesin) family proteins and adducin by their direct phosphorylation and by the inactivation of myosin phosphatase. Here we identified the sites of phosphorylation of MBS by Rho-kinase as Thr-697, Ser-854 and several residues, and prepared antibody that specifically recognized MBS phosphorylated at Ser-854. We found by use of this antibody that the stimulation of MDCK epithelial cells with tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) induced the phosphorylation of MBS at Ser-854 under the conditions in which membrane ruffling and cell migration were induced. Pretreatment of the cells with Botulinum C3 ADP-ribosyltransferase (C3), which is thought to interfere with Rho functions, or Rho-kinase inhibitors inhibited the TPA- or HGF-induced MBS phosphorylation. The TPA stimulation enhanced the immunoreactivity of phosphorylated MBS in the cytoplasm and membrane ruffling area of MDCK cells. In migrating MDCK cells, phosphorylated MBS as well as phosphorylated MLC at Ser-19 were localized in the leading edge and posterior region. Phosphorylated MBS was localized on actin stress fibers in REF52 fibroblasts. The microinjection of C3 or dominant negative Rho-kinase disrupted stress fibers and weakened the accumulation of phosphorylated MBS in REF52 cells. During cytokinesis, phosphorylated MBS, MLC and ERM family proteins accumulated at the cleavage furrow, and the phosphorylation level of MBS at Ser-854 was increased. Taken together, these results indicate that MBS is phosphorylated by Rho-kinase downstream of Rho in vivo, and suggest that myosin phosphatase and Rho-kinase spatiotemporally regulate the phosphorylation state of Rho-kinase substrates including MLC and ERM family proteins in vivo in a cooperative manner.  相似文献
8.
Phosphorylation of adducin by Rho-kinase plays a crucial role in cell motility   总被引:16,自引:0,他引:16  
Adducin is a membrane skeletal protein that binds to actin filaments (F-actin) and thereby promotes the association of spectrin with F-actin to form a spectrin-actin meshwork beneath plasma membranes such as ruffling membranes. Rho-associated kinase (Rho- kinase), which is activated by the small guanosine triphosphatase Rho, phosphorylates alpha-adducin and thereby enhances the F-actin-binding activity of alpha-adducin in vitro. Here we identified the sites of phosphorylation of alpha-adducin by Rho-kinase as Thr445 and Thr480. We prepared antibody that specifically recognized alpha-adducin phosphorylated at Thr445, and found by use of this antibody that Rho-kinase phosphorylated alpha-adducin at Thr445 in COS7 cells in a Rho-dependent manner. Phosphorylated alpha-adducin accumulated in the membrane ruffling area of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells and the leading edge of scattering cells during the action of tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). The microinjection of Botulinum C3 ADP-ribosyl-transferase, dominant negative Rho-kinase, or alpha-adducinT445A,T480A (substitution of Thr445 and Thr480 by Ala) inhibited the TPA-induced membrane ruffling in MDCK cells and wound-induced migration in NRK49F cells. alpha-AdducinT445D,T480D (substitution of Thr445 and Thr480 by Asp), but not alpha-adducinT445A,T480A, counteracted the inhibitory effect of the dominant negative Rho-kinase on the TPA-induced membrane ruffling in MDCK cells. Taken together, these results indicate that Rho-kinase phosphorylates alpha-adducin downstream of Rho in vivo, and that the phosphorylation of adducin by Rho-kinase plays a crucial role in the regulation of membrane ruffling and cell motility.  相似文献
9.
10.
We established four new mouse strains with defective T and B cells as well as defects in innate immunological reactions using an NK cell depletion antibody and showed that all mutant mouse strains efficiently received human peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) engraftment (hu-PBL-scid mice). Higher levels of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication were observed in these new hu-PBL-scid mice than in conventional hu-PBL-C.B-17-scid mice. In one particular strain, hu-PBL-NOD-scid mice, high levels of HIV-1 viremia (more than 10(6) 50% infectious doses per ml) were detected after infection with HIV-1. The plasma viral load was about 100 to 1,000 times higher than that observed in other hu-PBL-scid mice infected with HIV-1. Although high-level viremia did not correlate with the total amount of HIV-1 RNA in cells from infected mice, high levels of free virions were detected only in hu-PBL-NOD-scid mice. HIV-1 viremia induced systemic HIV-1 infection involving the liver, lungs, and brain. PCR in situ hybridization confirmed that HIV-1-infected cells invaded the brain tissue of the hu-PBL-NOD-scid mice. Our results suggest that the genetic background, including innate immunity, is critical in the development of primary HIV-1 viremia and subsequent central nervous system invasion with HIV-1. The hu-PBL-NOD-scid mouse represents a useful model for the study of the pathogenesis of HIV-1 in vivo, especially brain involvement, and therapy of primary HIV-1 viremia.  相似文献
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