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1.
Blood mononuclear cells from 47 cats experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) were examined by using monoclonal antibodies directed against feline CD4 and CD8 homologs, a pan-T-cell antigen, and cell surface immunoglobulin. Significant inversion of the CD4+/CD8+ T-cell ratio was observed only in cats that were infected for 18 months or more. This inversion was associated with a decrease in the absolute numbers of CD4+ T cells and a concomitant increase in CD8+ cells. However, the total numbers of circulating T and B cells were not significantly reduced. Cats infected with FIV for 24 to 28 months also had significantly elevated levels of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG), but normal levels of IgA and IgM. The long-term decline in CD4+ T cells and hypergammaglobulinemia observed in FIV-infected cats resemble the abnormalities occurring in humans after human immunodeficiency virus infection.  相似文献
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Interferon regulation of gene expression is dependent on the tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of the DNA-binding activity of two related proteins of 91 kDa (STAT1) and/or 113 kDa (STAT2). Recent studies have suggested that these proteins are substrates of Janus kinases and that proteins related in STAT1 are involved in a number of signalling pathways, including those activated in myeloid cells by erythropoietin and interleukin-3 (IL-3). To clone STAT-related proteins from myeloid cells, degenerate oligonucleotides were used in PCRs to identify novel family members expressed in myeloid cells. This approach allowed the identification and cloning of the Stat4 gene, which is 52% identical to STAT1. Unlike STAT1, Stat4 expression is restricted but includes myeloid cells and spermatogonia. In the erythroid lineage, Stat4 expression is differentially regulated during differentiation. Functionally, Stat4 has the properties of other STAT family genes. In particular, cotransfection of expression constructs for Stat4 and Jak1 and Jak2 results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat4 and the acquisition of the ability to bind to the gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-activated sequence of the interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) gene. Stat4 is located on mouse chromosome 1 and is tightly linked to the Stat1 gene, suggesting that the genes arose by gene duplication. Unlike Stat1, neither IFN-alpha nor IFN-gamma activates Stat4. Nor is Stat4 activated in myeloid cells by a number of cytokines, including erythropoietin, IL-3, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, stem cell factor, colon-stimulating factor 1, hepatocyte growth factor, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6.  相似文献
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Down syndrome (DS) is a major cause of mental retardation and heart disease. Although it is usually caused by the presence of an extra chromosome 21, a subset of the diagnostic features may be caused by the presence of only band 21q22. We now present evidence that significantly narrows the chromosomal region responsible for several of the phenotypic features of DS. We report a molecular and cytogenetic analysis of a three-generation family containing four individuals with clinical DS as manifested by the characteristic facial appearance, endocardial cushion defect, mental retardation, and probably dermatoglyphic changes. Autoradiograms of quantitative Southern blots of DNAs from two affected sisters, their carrier father, and a normal control were analyzed after hybridization with two to six unique DNA sequences regionally mapped on chromosome 21. These include cDNA probes for the genes for CuZn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) mapping in 21q22.1 and for the amyloid precursor protein (APP) mapping in 21q11.2-21.05, in addition to six probes for single-copy sequences: D21S46 in 21q11.2-21.05, D21S47 and SF57 in 21q22.1-22.3, and D21S39, D21S42, and D21S43 in 21q22.3. All sequences located in 21q22.3 were present in three copies in the affected individuals, whereas those located proximal to this region were present in only two copies. In the carrier father, all DNA sequences were present in only two copies. Cytogenetic analysis of affected individuals employing R and G banding of prometaphase preparations combined with in situ hybridization revealed a translocation of the region from very distal 21q22.1 to 21qter to chromosome 4q. Except for a possible phenotypic contribution from the deletion of chromosome band 4q35, these data provide a molecular definition of the minimal region of chromosome 21 which, when duplicated, generates the facial features, heart defect, a component of the mental retardation, and probably several of the dermatoglyphic changes of DS. This region may include parts of bands 21q22.2 and 21q22.3, but it must exclude the genes S0D1 and APP and most of band 21q22.1, specifically the region defined by S0D1, SF57 and D21S47.  相似文献
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Severin, a 40,000-dalton protein from Dictyostelium that disassembles actin filaments in a Ca2+ -dependent manner, was purified 500-fold to greater than 99% homogeneity by modifications of the procedure reported by Brown, Yamamoto, and Spudich (1982. J. Cell Biol. 93:205-210). Severin has a Stokes radius of 29 A and consists of a single polypeptide chain. It contains a single methionyl and five cysteinyl residues. We studied the action of severin on actin filaments by electron microscopy, viscometry, sedimentation, nanosecond emission anisotropy, and fluorescence energy transfer spectroscopy. Nanosecond emission anisotropy of fluoresence-labeled severin shows that this protein changes its conformation on binding Ca2+. Actin filaments are rapidly fragmented on addition of severin and Ca2+, but severin does not interact with actin filaments in the absence of Ca2+. Fluorescence energy transfer measurements indicate that fragmentation of actin filaments by severin leads to a partial depolymerization (t1/2 approximately equal to 30 s). Depolymerization is followed by exchange of a limited number of subunits in the filament fragments with the disassembled actin pool (t1/2 approximately equal to 5 min). Disassembly and exchange are probably restricted to the ends of the filament fragments since only a few subunits in each fragment participate in the disassembly or exchange process. Steady state hydrolysis of ATP by actin in the presence of Ca2+-severin is maximal at an actin: severin molar ratio of approximately 10:1, which further supports the inference that subunit exchange is limited to the ends of actin filaments. The observation of sequential depolymerization and subunit exchange following the fragmentation of actin by severin suggests that severin may regulate site-specific disassembly and turnover of actin filament arrays in vivo.  相似文献
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A method that stimulates cholera toxin (CT) production by Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor (El Tor vibrios) to the level of several micrograms per ml in the culture fluid was established. Such a large amount of CT was obtained by the following method: El Tor vibrios were cultured in AKI medium (1.5% Bacto peptone, 0.4% yeast extract-Difco, 0.5% NaCl, 0.3% NaHCO3) at 37 C for 4 hr in a stationary test tube and then for 16 hr in a shaken flask, with inoculum sizes of 10(5) to 10(7)/ml. With this method, 35 strains out of 60 examined produced 2 to 16 micrograms/ml of CT as determined by the reversed passive latex agglutination test (RPLA). Thirty-three randomly selected strains out of the 60 produced reasonable amounts of rabbit skin vascular permeability factor, reflecting the amount of CT titrated with RPLA.  相似文献
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA was extracted from sera of six carriers with hepatitis B e antigen as well as antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen and sequenced within the pre-S regions and the S gene. HBV DNA clones from five of these carriers had point mutations in the S gene, resulting in conversion from Ile-126 or Thr-126 of the wild-type virus to Ser-126 or Asn-126 in three carriers and conversion from Gly-145 to Arg-145 in three of them; clones with Asn-126 or Arg-145 were found in one carrier. All 12 clones from the other carrier had an insertion of 24 bp encoding an additional eight amino acids between Thr-123 and Cys-124. In addition, all or at least some of the HBV DNA clones from these carriers had in-phase deletions in the 5' terminus of the pre-S2 region. These results indicate that HBV escape mutants with mutations in the S gene affecting the expression of group-specific determinants would survive in some carriers after they seroconvert to antibody against surface antigen. Carriers with HBV escape mutants may transmit HBV either by donation of blood units without detectable surface antigen or through community-acquired infection, which would hardly be prevented by current hepatitis B immuneglobulin or vaccines.  相似文献
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