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The acute effects of cigarette smoke exposure on experimental skin flaps   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
Random vascular patterned caudally based McFarlane-type skin flaps were elevated in groups of Fischer 344 rats. Groups of rats were then acutely exposed on an intermittent basis to smoke generated from well-characterized research filter cigarettes. Previously developed smoke inhalation exposure protocols were employed using a Maddox-ORNL inhalation exposure system. Rats that continued smoke exposure following surgery showed a significantly greater mean percent area of flap necrosis compared with sham-exposed groups or control groups not exposed. The possible pathogenesis of this observation as well as considerations and correlations with chronic human smokers are discussed. Increased risks of flap necrosis by smoking in the perioperative period are suggested by this study.  相似文献
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Prostaglandin (PG) E synthase was solubilized with 6 mM sodium deoxycholate from the microsomal fraction of bovine hearts. The enzyme was purified by about 800-fold to apparent homogeneity. The specific activity of the purified enzyme was about 830 mU/mg of protein, and the K(m) value for PGH(2) was 24 microM. The molecular weight of the enzyme was about 31000 on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and was about 60000 by gel filtration. The enzyme was separated from glutathione (GSH) S-transferase by DEAE-Toyopearl column chromatography, and did not exhibit any GSH S-transferase activity towards four different substrates. The purified enzyme was active in the absence of GSH, but it was activated by various SH-reducing reagents including dithiothreitol, GSH, or beta-mercaptoethanol. This is the first reported purification of membrane-bound PGE synthase to apparent homogeneity.  相似文献
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T Nomura  K Kurihara 《Biochemistry》1987,26(19):6135-6140
Various odorants were found to depolarize azolectin liposomes. The results obtained are as follows. (1) Changes in the membrane potential of azolectin liposomes in response to various odorants were monitored by measuring changes in the fluorescence intensity of 3,3'-dipropylthiocarbocyanine iodide [disS-C3(5)]. Ten odorants examined increased the fluorescence intensity of the liposome-dye suspensions in a dose-dependent manner, which indicates that odorants depolarize the liposomes. Concentrations of odorants that depolarized the liposomes greatly varied among the odorants. There existed a good correlation between the minimum concentrations of odorants to depolarize the liposomes and the thresholds of respective odorants in the frog or porcine olfactory responses. (2) Addition of sphingomyelin (SM) to azolectin led to a large enhancement of depolarizations by nonanol, citral, and n-amyl acetate. The results indicate that lipid composition of liposomes is one of the factors that control the sensitivity to odorants. (3) Odorants changed the membrane fluidity of the liposomes, which was monitored by changes in the fluorescence polarization of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH). The membrane fluidity was changed in concentration ranges of odorants similar to those where the membrane potential changes occurred, which suggests that changes in the membrane fluidity are related to generation of the membrane potential changes. (4) Changes in the membrane potential in response to odorants were electrically measured with the planar lipid bilayer made of an azolectin-SM (2:1 w/w) mixture. It was shown that odorants (nonanol, citral, and n-amyl acetate) depolarized the planar lipid bilayer.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)  相似文献
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Mechanisms of the amazing ability of salmon to migrate a long distance from open water to natal streams for spawning are still unknown. Lacustrine sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Lake Toya offers an excellent model system for studying the orientation mechanism in open water, because mature fish return to the natal area with a high degree of accuracy. First we examined the percentage of fish returning to the natal area after they were released 7 km south of the natal area. Forty percent of control male mature fish and 25% of the fish blinded by injection of a mixture of carbon toner and corn oil into the eyeball were captured in the natal area within 5 days. Forty-four percent of fish with brass rings (control) and 31% of fish with NdFe magnetic rings which interfere with the magnetic cue were captured in the natal area within 3 days. These experiments suggested that, although the number of blinded fish captured in the natal area was less than that of the controls, the difference was not statistically significant. In the fish captured in the natal area within 3 or 5 days, fish which found the natal area using their olfactory cue after random swimming for a long time and returned to that area may be included. Hence we tracked fish telemetrically using an ultrasonic tracking system, and found that mature males released at a long distance (3.6 or 6.8 km) from the natal area swam straight to the vicinity of the natal area. Interference of the magnetic cue by the attachment of a magnetic ring did not affect their direct return. Blockage of the visual cue caused them to move randomly. These data suggest that lacustrine sockeye salmon return straight to the vicinity of the natal area using their visual cue and finally reach the exact homing point using their olfactory cue.   相似文献
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Recently, a novel gene for a putative transmembrane protein (WFS1/wolframin) was found to be mutated in patients with Wolfram syndrome or DI-DM-OA-D (diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness) syndrome. It is suggested that the WFS1 protein is important in the survival of islet beta-cells. We studied the WFS1 gene in a Japanese population to assess its possible role in common type 1 diabetes. Mutation screening revealed four missense mutations; R456H, G576S, H611R, and I720V. By genetic association studies of 185 type 1 diabetes patients and 380 control subjects, we found that R456H was significantly increased in the type 1 diabetes group compared to the control group (P = 0.0005); H611R and I720V were also significantly increased with weaker significance. Furthermore, in patients with the R456H mutation, type 1 diabetes-resistant HLA-DRB1 alleles (DRB1*0406, 1501, and 1502) were significantly increased compared to mutation-negative patients while susceptible DRB1*0901 was significantly decreased. Frequencies of autoimmunity characteristics (ICA or GAD-Ab positiveness and combination of autoimmune thyroid disease) were decreased in the R456H-positive patients compared to the R456H-negative patients. These data suggest that the WFS1 gene may have a role in the development of common type 1 diabetes as a nonautoimmune genetic basis.  相似文献
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The lingual artery of the bullfrog was perfused with artificial solution and the effects of Ca2+, Ca-channel blockers (MnCl2 and verapamil), cGMP, and cAMP added to the perfusing solution of the gustatory nerve responses were examined. The responses to chemical stimuli of group 1 (CaCl2, NaCl, distilled water, D-galactose, and L- threonine) applied to the tongue surface were greatly decreased by a decrease in Ca2+ concentration in the perfusing solution, suppressed by the Ca-channel blockers, enhanced by cGMP, and suppressed by cAMP. The responses to chemical stimuli of group 2 (quinine hydrochloride, theophylline, ethanol, and HCl) were practically not affected by a decrease in Ca2+ concentration, the Ca-channel blockers, cGMP, and cAMP. The responses to the stimuli of group 1 seem to be induced by Ca influx into a taste cell that is triggered by depolarization and modulated by the cyclic nucleotides in a taste cell. The responses to group 2 seem to be induced without accompanying Ca influx.  相似文献
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