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1.
M Orita  Y Suzuki  T Sekiya  K Hayashi 《Genomics》1989,5(4):874-879
We report a rapid and sensitive method for the detection of base changes in given sequences of genomic DNA. This technique is based on the facts that specific regions of genomic sequences can be efficently labeled and amplified simultaneously by using labeled substrates in the polymerase chain reaction and that in nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels, the electrophoretic mobility of single-stranded nucleic acid depends not only on its size but also on its sequence. The process does not involve restriction enzyme digestion, blotting, or hybridization to probes. We found that most single base changes in up to 200-base fragments could be detected as mobility shifts. RAS oncogene activation was detected by this technique. We also show that the interspersed repetitive sequences of human, Alu repeats are highly polymorphic.  相似文献
2.
The core protein of the proteoglycan at the cell surface of NMuMG mouse mammary epithelial cells bears both heparan and chondroitin sulfate chains and is recognized by the monoclonal antibody 281-2. Using this antibody and the peroxidase-antiperoxidase staining technique in adult mouse tissues, we found that the antibody recognizes the antigen in a highly restricted distribution, staining a variety of epithelial cells but no cells derived from embryonic mesoderm or neural crest. The antibody fails to stain any stromal (mesenchymal) or neuronal cells, with the exception of plasma cells and Leydig cells. Squamous and transitional epithelia stain intensely over their entire surfaces, whereas cuboidal and columnar epithelia stain moderately and only at the lateral surface of the basal cells. Within squamous and transitional epithelial tissues that undergo physiological regeneration (e.g., epidermis), the most superficial and differentiated cell types fail to stain. Within glandular and branched epithelia (e.g., pancreas), the secretory alveolar cells fail to stain. When evaluated by electron microscopy, granular deposits of stain are seen on the plasma membrane, especially on lateral surfaces, but none are noted within the cells or the basement membrane. These results indicate that in adult tissues the core protein of this heparan sulfate-rich proteoglycan is expressed almost exclusively at epithelial cell surfaces. Expression appears to be lost as the cells become either mature or highly differentiated.  相似文献
3.
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors that serve an important function in detecting pathogens and initiating inflammatory responses. Upon encounter with foreign Ag, dendritic cells (DCs) go through a maturation process characterized by an increase in surface expression of MHC class II and costimulatory molecules, which leads to initiation of an effective immune response in naive T cells. The innate immune response to bacterial flagellin is mediated by TLR5, which is expressed on human DCs. Therefore, we sought to investigate whether flagellin could induce DC maturation. Immature DCs were cultured in the absence or presence of flagellin and monitored for expression of cell surface maturation markers. Stimulation with flagellin induced increased surface expression of CD83, CD80, CD86, MHC class II, and the lymph node-homing chemokine receptor CCR7. Flagellin stimulated the expression of chemokines active on neutrophils (IL-8/CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)8, GRO-alpha/CXCL1, GRO-beta/CXCL2, GRO-gamma/CXCL3), monocytes (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/CC chemokine ligand (CCL)2), and immature DCs (macrophage-inflammatory protein-1 alpha/CCL3, macrophage-inflammatory protein-1 beta/CCL4), but not chemokines active on effector T cells (IFN-inducible protein-10 kDa/CXCL10, monokine induced by IFN-gamma/CXCL9, IFN-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant/CXCL11). However, stimulating DCs with both flagellin and IFN-inducible protein-10 kDa, monokine induced by IFN-gamma, and IFN-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant expression, whereas stimulation with IFN-beta or flagellin alone failed to induce these chemokines. In functional assays, flagellin-matured DCs displayed enhanced T cell stimulatory activity with a concomitant decrease in endocytic activity. Finally, DCs isolated from mouse spleens or bone marrows were shown to not express TLR5 and were not responsive to flagellin stimulation. These results demonstrate that flagellin can directly stimulate human but not murine DC maturation, providing an additional mechanism by which motile bacteria can initiate an acquired immune response.  相似文献
4.
A new technique is described for amplifying individual alleles in a mixture of two or more alleles by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine their nucleotide sequence. This technique involves amplifying and separating target sequences by the PCR-mediated single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) method, isolating each polymorphic DNA strand, and amplifying it by a second-stage PCR for its sequence determination. By this technique, the sequence of a minor constituent (approximately 3%) can be determined accurately.  相似文献
5.
A cloning vehicle suitable for strand separation   总被引:21,自引:0,他引:21  
K Hayashi 《Gene》1980,11(1-2):109-115
A new plasmid has been constructed which contains a poly(A) : poly(dT) duplex segment of length approx. 100 base pairs (bp) inserted into the PvuII site of pBR322. This plasmid, pKH47, has all the other restriction sites of pBR322 available for insertion of foreign DNA, and has the same drug resistance genes as does the parental plasmid. The complementary strands of the linearized denatured plasmid DNA can be separated rapidly an efficiently by affinity chromatography with oligo(dA)- and oligo(dT)-cellulose columns in series. More than 90% of the input DNA is recovered as separated strands which can be annealed to form full length double-stranded molecules. One of the applications of the plasmid is to prepare separated complementary strands for sequencing by the chain-terminator technique using DNA primers. This application is illustrated by a sequencing example for a Drosophila DNA insert carrying a tRNA gene.  相似文献
6.
Stress distribution through the wall thickness of the canine carotid artery was analyzed on the basis of the uniform strain hypothesis in which the wall circumferential strain was assumed to be constant over the wall cross-section under physiological loading condition. A newly proposed logarithmic type of strain energy density function was used to describe the wall properties. In contrast with other studies, this hypothesis gave almost uniform distribution of wall stresses under the physiological condition and non-zero residual stresses when all external forces were removed.  相似文献
7.
We have employed a highly specific in situ hybridization protocol that allows differential detection of mRNAs of collagen types I and II in paraffin sections from chick embryo tissues. All probes were cDNA restriction fragments encoding portions of the C-propeptide region of the pro alpha-chain, and some of the fragments also encoded the 3'-untranslated region of mRNAs of either type I or type II collagen. Smears of tendon fibroblasts and those of sternal chondrocytes from 17-d-old chick embryos as well as paraffin sections of 10-d-old whole embryos and of the cornea of 6.5-d-old embryos were hybridized with 3H-labeled probes for either type I or type II collagen mRNA. Autoradiographs revealed that the labeling was prominent in tendon fibroblasts with the type I collagen probe and in sternal chondrocytes with the type II collagen probe; that in the cartilage of sclera and limbs from 10-d-old embryos, the type I probe showed strong labeling of fibroblast sheets surrounding the cartilage and of a few chondrocytes in the cartilage, whereas the type II probe labeled chondrocytes intensely and only a few fibroblasts; and that in the cornea of 6.5-d-old embryos, the type I probe labeled the epithelial cells and fibroblasts in the stroma heavily, and the endothelial cells slightly, whereas the type II probe labeled almost exclusively the epithelial cells except for a slight labeling in the endothelial cells. These data indicate that embryonic tissues express these two collagen genes separately and/or simultaneously and offer new approaches to the study of the cellular regulation of extracellular matrix components.  相似文献
8.
DNA sequence polymorphisms in Alu repeats   总被引:15,自引:0,他引:15  
M Orita  T Sekiya  K Hayashi 《Genomics》1990,8(2):271-278
We have developed an efficient method for detection of sequence differences in genomic DNA based on a new principle (M. Orita et al., 1989, Genomics 5: 874-879). Using this method, we show here that approximately half the Alu repeats interspersed in the human genome are significantly polymorphic. Analysis of Alu repeat polymorphism should be useful in construction of a high-resolution map and also in identifying genotypes of individuals for clinical and other purposes because the repeats are ubiquitous and the technique for their detection is simple.  相似文献
9.
Organization of sequences related to U6 RNA in the human genome.   总被引:15,自引:6,他引:9       下载免费PDF全文
Small nuclear RNAs were isolated from human placenta and fractionated into individual molecular species. They were then iodinated with 125I and used as probes to screen the human genome. Of 2 x 10(4) recombinant phage clones screened, 22 clones hybridized with U6 RNA, suggesting that there were about 200 copies of this sequence family per haploid genome. Southern blots of these cloned DNAs digested with several restriction enzymes gave the following results: 1, each clone had only one fragment that carried the U6 sequence, 2, the lengths of these fragments varied from clone to clone. These observations indicate that U6 sequences exist as dispersed middle repetitive DNA, and that the sequences surrounding these loci vary. Two of the loci and their flanking regions were subcloned into plasmid and sequenced. Both of the loci showed microheterogeneity of mainly A/G and T/C, but had closely related sequences to U6 RNAs of rat or mouse. The divergence of the flanking regions begins immediately outside the loci. The implication on the microheterogeneity of the U6-related sequences is discussed.  相似文献
10.
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