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A quantitative trait locus (QTL) for grain weight (GW) was detected near SSR marker RM210 on chromosome 8 in backcross populations derived from a cross between the Korean japonica cultivar Hwaseongbyeo and Oryza rufipogon (IRGC 105491). The O. rufipogon allele increased GW in the Hwaseongbyeo background despite the fact that O. rufipogon was the small-seeded parent. Using sister BC3F3 near-isogenic lines (NILs), gw8.1 was validated and mapped to a 6.1 cM region in the interval between RM42 and RM210 (P≤0.0001). Substitution mapping with eight BC3F4 sub-NILs further narrowed the interval containing gw8.1 to about 306.4 kb between markers RM23201.CNR151 and RM30000.CNR99. A yield trial using homozygous BC3F4 sister sub-NILs and the Hwaseongbyeo recurrent parent indicated that the NIL carrying an O. rufipogon chromosome segment across the entire gw8.1 target region out-yielded its sister NIL (containing Hwaseongbyeo chromosome in the RM42–RM210 interval) by 9% (P=0.029). The higher-yielding NIL produced 19.3% more grain than the Hwaseongbyeo recurrent parent (P=0.018). Analysis of a BC3F4 NIL indicated that the variation for GW is associated with variation in grain shape, specifically grain length. The locus, gw8.1 is of particular interest because of its independence from undesirable height and grain quality traits. SSR markers tightly linked to the GW QTL will facilitate cloning of the gene underlying this QTL as well as marker-assisted selection for variation in GW in an applied breeding program.  相似文献
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Improved eating quality is a major breeding target in japonica rice due to market demand. In this study, we performed genetic analysis to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control rice eating quality traits using 192 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between two japonica cultivars, 'Suweon365' and 'Chucheongbyeo'. We evaluated the stickiness (ST) and overall evaluation (OE) of cooked rice using a sensory test, the glossiness of cooked rice (GCR) using a Toyo-taste meter, and measured the amylose content (AC), protein content (PC), alkali digestion value (ADV), and days to heading (DH) of the RILs in the years 2006 and 2007. Our analysis revealed 21 QTLs on chromosomes 1, 4, 6, 7, 8, and 11. QTLs on chromosomes 6, 7, and 8 were detected for three traits related to eating quality in both years. QTLs for ST and OE were identified by a sensory test in the same region of the QTLs for AC, PC, ADV, GCR and DH on chromosome 8. QTL effects on the GCR were verified using QTL-NILs (near-isogenic lines) of BC(3)F(4-6) in the Suweon365 background, a low eating quality variety, and some BC(1)F(3) lines. Chucheongbyeo alleles at QTLs on chromosomes 7 and 8 increased the GCR in the NILs and backcrossed lines. The QTLs identified by our analysis will be applicable to future marker-assisted selection (MAS) strategies for improving the eating quality of japonica rice.  相似文献
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Rice is one of the most important global food crops and a primary source of calories for more than half of the world's population. Rice production increased steadily during the green revolution era primarily as a result of introducing high-yielding rice varieties. World rice production increased at a rate of 2.3–2.5% per year during 1970s and 1980s, but this rate of growth was only 1.5% per year during the 1990s. The yield growth rate for rice has further declined during the first decade of this century. However, the populations in the major rice-consuming countries continue to grow at a rate of more than 1.5% per year. According to various estimates, world rice production must increase at the rate of 2 million tons per year. To meet this challenge, rice varieties with higher yield potential and greater yield stability are needed. Various strategies for increasing the yield potential of rice include; (1) conventional hybridization and selection, (2) F1 hybrid breeding, (3) modification of plant architecture, and (4) enhancement of photosynthesis. Many genes and QTLs have recently been identified which will assist with rice breeding objectives.  相似文献
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The HSP90 (heat shock protein 90), SGT1 (suppressor of G-two allele ofSkp1), and RAR1 (required forMla12 resistance) proteins in plants form a molecular chaperone complex which is involved in diverse biological signaling including development and disease resistance. The three components of this complex interact via specific protein binding motifs and recruit client proteins to initiate a specific signaling cascade in response to cellular or environmental cues. Although the functions of this chaperone complex during development/growth have not been well characterized, the HSP90 chaperone and SGT1 and RAR1 co-chaperones have been demonstrated to be essential signaling components of plant immune responses. These three proteins also play important roles in activation of the mammalian Nod genes, which possess a structurally conserved plant resistance (R) protein motif, NB-LRR (nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat). In this review, we summarize the structures and functions of these molecular chaperones, and discuss their putative modes of action in plant immune responses.  相似文献
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