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In order to assess the phylogenetic structure of the springtail genus Palmanura, as well as to test the monophyly of the tribe Sensillanurini (Neanuridae: Neanurinae), a data matrix of morphological (chaetotactic and other) characters of members of this group was assembled and analysed in the light of Wagner parsimony. The data matrix included all the known members of the Neotropical genus Palmanura, plus representatives of Sensillanura and Americanura. Although not all the clades obtained were highly supported by bootstrap resampling, some structures were relatively constant under different approaches. Alternative analyses (unordered and ordered character states, rescaled weighting procedure) were applied. While alternative solutions were obtained, a number of structures were shared by the results irrespective of the method used. On this basis, the results suggest that some further reassessment is required to confirm formally the monophyly of the tribe Sensillanurini. The genera Palmanura and Americanura are mutually poly/paraphyletic; we thus suggest that Palmanura should be considered as a synonym of Americanura, although some character reassessment and more varied outgroup species may be necessary before a formal generic redefinition can be proposed. Finally, a comparison of the performance of the characters under Wagner parsimony analysis indicated that differences in the characters’ retention indexes are due not to the topological (tagmal) position of the traits involved, but to character coding: the characters describing quantitative features (generally numbers of setae) generally performed worse than other types of characters under parsimony. An updated list of the known members of the Sensillanurini (Collembola: Neanuridae: Neanurinae) is presented.
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