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1.
Herbivorous and carnivorous arthropods use plant volatiles when foraging for food. In response to herbivory, plants emit a blend that may be quantitatively and qualitatively different from the blend emitted when intact. This induced volatile blend alters the interactions of the plant with its environment. We review recent developments regarding the induction mechanism as well as the ecological consequences in a multitrophic and evolutionary context. It has been well established that carnivores (predators and parasitoids) are attracted by the volatiles induced by their herbivorous victims. This concerns an active plant response. In the case of attraction of predators, this is likely to result in a fitness benefit to the plant, because through consumption a predator removes the herbivores from the plant. However, the benefit to the plant is less clear when parasitoids are attracted, because parasitisation does usually not result in an instantaneous or in a complete termination of consumption by the herbivore. Recently, empirical evidence has been obtained that shows that the plant's response can increase plant fitness, in terms of seed production, due to a reduced consumption rate of parasitized herbivores. However, apart from a benefit from attracting carnivores, the induced volatiles can have a serious cost because there is an increasing number of studies that show that herbivores can be attracted. However, this does not necessarily result in settlement of the herbivores on the emitting plant. The presence of cues from herbivores and/or carnivores that indicate that the plant is a competitor- and/or enemy-dense space, may lead to an avoidance response. Thus, the benefit of emission of induced volatiles is likely to depend on the prevailing faunal composition. Whether plants can adjust their response and influence the emission of the induced volatiles, taking the prevalent environmental conditions into account, is an interesting question that needs to be addressed. The induced volatiles may also affect interactions of the emitting plant with its neighbours, e.g., through altered competitive ability or by the neighbour exploiting the emitted information.Major questions to be addressed in this research field comprise mechanistic aspects, such as the identification of the minimally effective blend of volatiles that explains the attraction of carnivores to herbivore-infested plants, and evolutionary aspects such as the fitness consequences of induced volatiles. The elucidation of mechanistic aspects is important for addressing ecological and evolutionary questions. For instance, an important tool to address ecological and evolutionary aspects would be to have plant pairs that differ in only a single trait. Such plants are likely to become available in the near future as a result of mechanistic studies on signal-transduction pathways and an increased interest in molecular genetics.  相似文献
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We tested whether a plant's life time seed production is increased by parasitization of herbivores in a tritrophic system, Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) plants, Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) caterpillars and the solitary endoparasitoid Cotesia rubecula (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). We established seed production for intact A. thaliana plants, plants that were mechanically damaged, plants fed upon by parasitized caterpillars and plants fed upon by unparasitized caterpillars. In the first experiment, with ecotype Landsberg (erecta mutant), herbivory by unparasitized P. rapae caterpillars resulted in a strongly reduced seed production compared to undamaged plants. In contrast, damage by P. rapae caterpillars that had been parasitized by C. rubecula did not result in a significant reduction in seed production. For the second experiment with the ecotype Columbia, the results were identical. Plants damaged by unparasitized caterpillars only produced seeds on regrown shoots. Seed production of plants that had been mechanically damaged was statistically similar to that of undamaged plants. Production of the first ripe siliques by plants fed upon by unparasitized caterpillars was delayed by 18–22 days for Landsberg and 9–10 days for Columbia. We conclude that parasitization of P. rapae by C. rubecula potentially confers a considerable fitness benefit for A. thaliana plants when compared to plants exposed to feeding damage by unparasitized P. rapae larvae. Plants that attract parasitoids and parasitoids that respond to herbivore-induced plant volatiles will both experience selective advantage, justifying the use of the term mutualism for this parasitoid-plant interaction. This type of mutualism is undoubtedly very common in nature.  相似文献
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Recent advances in our understanding of the relationship between chemosensory and behavioural responses to phytochemicals come from a number of studies on ovipositional and food selection behaviour of flies, butterflies, moths and beetles. Establishing input-output relationships has provided insight into the way in which the activity of chemoreceptors is translated into host-plant selection behaviour. This was achieved for both the qualitative contrast acceptance/rejection and for quantifiable preference hierarchies. By now it is clear that the subtlety of coding the complex phytochemical profiles offered by potential host plants relies on across-fibre patterns or ensemblefiring of taste neurons. Progress along these lines depends on unravelling processing pathways in the central nervous system, still a largely unexplored area in herbivorous insects. Increased interest can be noted for the mechanisms operating during the most peripheral events of chemoreception: the interaction of phytochemical and chemoreceptor, determining the specificity of recognition. Evidence for peripheral integration has accumulated. Deterrent receptors have an especially puzzling nature. Although such cells respond to a wide array of structurally diverse secondary plant metabolites, their sensitivity profile differs between closely related species. To what extent membrane-bound receptor molecules are involved and what degree of specificity is conferred by these, is largely unknown. Sensitivity to a certain group or class of compounds is determined by single genes in several cases. This allows for a scenario in which single gene mutations affect stimulus-receptor interactions, which might concurrently affect host-plant selection behaviour.  相似文献
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The pentatomid predator P. bioculatus responded by positive odour-conditioned anemotaxis when exposed to airborne volatiles emitted by potato plants damaged by Colorado potato beetle larvae, whereas intact potato plants and non-feeding larvae as odour sources failed to elicit anemotaxis. Walking tracks of adult predators had higher values of straightness and upwind fixation when odours emanating from mechanically damaged plants were encountered than tracks registered in response to air carrying volatiles from intact plants, but these parameters returned to control values within 1–2 h after damage was caused. In contrast, air led over plants damaged by beetle larvae elicited orientation responses at least 3 hours after feeding damage ceased. The combination of chemical data on headspace composition, olfactory sensitivity established in electro-antennogram studies and behavioural data presented here imply a role of sesquiterpenoid plant volatiles as odorous cues eliciting attraction of this predator to damaged potato plants.  相似文献
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Parasitoid load affects plant fitness in a tritrophic system   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Plants attacked by herbivorous insects emit volatile compounds that attract predators or parasitoids of the herbivores. Plant fitness increases when these herbivorous insects are parasitized by solitary parasitoids, but whether gregarious koinobiont parasitoids also confer a benefit to plant fitness has been disputed. We investigated the relationship between parasitoid load of the gregarious Cotesia glomerata (L.) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), food consumption by larvae of their host Pieris brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), and seed production in a host plant, Brassica nigra L. (Brassicaceae), in a greenhouse experiment. Plants damaged by caterpillars containing single parasitoid broods produced a similar amount of seeds as undamaged control plants and produced significantly more seeds than plants with unparasitized caterpillars feeding on them. Increasing the parasitoid load to levels likely resulting from superparasitization, feeding by parasitized caterpillars was significantly negatively correlated with plant seed production. Higher parasitoid brood sizes were negatively correlated with pupal weight of Cotesia glomerata , revealing scramble competition leading to a fitness trade-off for the parasitoid. Our results suggest that in this tritrophic system plant fitness is higher when the gregarious parasitoid deposits a single brood into its herbivorous host. A prediction following from these results is that plants benefit from recruiting parasitoids when superparasitization is prevented. This is supported by our previous results on down-regulation of synomone production when Brassica oleracea was fed on by parasitized caterpillars of P. brassicae . We conclude that variable parasitoid loads in gregarious koinobiont parasitoids largely explain existing controversies about the putative benefit of recruiting these parasitoids for plant reproduction.  相似文献
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Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) adult longevity and fecundity were studied on transgenic potato clones expressing a Cry3B endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Adult longevity and fitness were studied for the first 3 weeks after emergence. Beetle reproductive biology on highly resistant clones, intermediary resistant clones and control potato plants was monitored by dissecting females after 7–15 days of feeding and also by analysing haemolymph protein content after 3 days of feeding. Feeding behaviour on transgenic plants expressing high toxin concentrations and on control plants was monitored individually for 36 newly emerged adult beetles feeding on leaf disks during the first two meals. Lethal Time50 for adult beetles feeding on transgenic clones as the sole source of food was not significantly shorter than for beetles on control clones reared in a growth chamber. Differences tended to be larger when the experiment was conducted in a greenhouse with a less optimal temperature range (LT50 = 9.52 and 10.45 days for two transgenic clones and 13.86 for control). In contrast, female egg production on transgenic plants was almost totally inhibited. Dissection studies indicated that adult males living on high-level Bt-expressing transgenic potatoes were still able to mate and produce mobile sperm, but the females were impaired in their reproductive ability since their ovaries were generally not fully developed. An examination of the haemolymph revealed the protein concentration in females living on transgenic plants to be dramatically reduced ( 50%), and electrophoresis showed a reduced content of vitellogenin in these samples.Feeding behaviour of adult Colorado potato beetles was not affected by the different food plants; this indicates that transgenic potato plants were readily accepted as host plants by beetles. The effects of these findings on the use of transgenic plants as a means of L. decemlineata control are discussed.  相似文献
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Pieris butterflies (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) are specialist herbivores of cruciferous plants. They exploit glucosinolates, secondary plant metabolites chemotaxonomically characteristic for this plant family, as token stimuli. In addition to particular glucosinolates, some genera of the Cruciferae contain cardenolides, steroidal allelochemicals that act as potent feeding and oviposition deterrents to several Pieris species. We investigated the sensory mechanisms by which these compounds are perceived in larvae. Pieris caterpillars and many other lepidopterous species are endowed with so-called generalist deterrent receptors, that respond to a broad spectrum of secondary plant substances. In Pieris caterpillars we found a second type of deterrent chemoreceptor in maxillary styloconic taste sensilla. This neuron is very sensitive to cardenolides (threshold 0.1–0.3 M). The generalist deterrent receptor also responds to these substances but its threshold lies at 50–100× higher concentrations. In behavioural preference experiments Pieris brassicae L. caterpillars preferred cardenolide-treated cabbage leaf discs when confronted with a choice between them and a deterrent substance that does not occur in the Brassicaceae. The cardenolides acted as potent deterrents when offered against untreated cabbage leaf discs. This demonstrates that the balance of activity elicited in the two types of deterrent chemoreceptors determines the behavioural decision.  相似文献
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