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1.
The chemical relationships among particulate and colloidal organicmaterial and dissolved fulvic acid were examined in an alpine andsubalpine lake and two streams in Loch Vale Watershed, Rocky MountainNational Park. The alpine lake, Sky Pond, had the lowest dissolved organiccarbon (DOC) (0.37 mgC/L), the highest particulate carbon (POC) (0.13mgC/L), and high algal biomass. The watershed of Sky Pond is primarilytalus slope, and DOC and POC may be autochthonous. Both Andrews Creekand Icy Brook gain DOC as they flow through wet sedge meadows. Thesubalpine lake, The Loch, receives additional organic material from thesurrounding forest and had a higher DOC (0.66 mgC/L). Elemental analysis,stable carbon isotopic compositon, and 13C-NMR characterizationshowed that: 1) particulate material had relatively high inorganic contentsand was heterogeneous in compositon, 2) colloidal material was primarilycarbohydrate material with a low inorganic content at all sites; and 3)dissolved fulvic acid varied in compositon among sites. The lowconcentration and carbohydrate-rich character of the colloidal materialsuggests that this fraction is labile to microbial degradation and may beturning over more rapidly than particulate fractions or dissolved fulvic acid.Fulvic acid from Andrews Creek had the lowest N content and aromaticity,whereas Sky Pond fulvic acid had a higher N content and lower aromaticitythan fulvic acid from The Loch. The UV-visible spectra of the fulvic acidsdemonstrate that variation in characteristics with sources of organic carboncan explain to some extent the observed non-linear relationship betweenUV-B extinction coefficients and DOC concentrations in lakes.  相似文献
2.
Ecosystem Responses to Nitrogen Deposition in the Colorado Front Range   总被引:10,自引:2,他引:8  
We asked whether 3–5 kg N y−1 atmospheric N deposition was sufficient to have influenced natural, otherwise undisturbed, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems of the Colorado Front Range by comparing ecosystem processes and properties east and west of the Continental Divide. The eastern side receives elevated N deposition from urban, agricultural, and industrial sources, compared with 1–2 kg N y−1 on the western side. Foliage of east side old-growth Englemann spruce forests have significantly lower C:N and lignin:N ratios and greater N:Mg and N:P ratios. Soil % N is higher, and C:N ratios lower in the east side stands, and potential net N mineralization rates are greater. Lake NO3 concentrations are significantly higher in eastern lakes than western lakes. Two east side lakes studied paleolimnologically revealed rapid changes in diatom community composition and increased biovolumes and cell concentrations. The diatom flora is now representative of increased disturbance or eutrophication. Sediment nitrogen isotopic ratios have become progressively lighter over the past 50 years, coincident with the change in algal flora, possibly from an influx of isotopically light N volatilized from agricultural fields and feedlots. Seventy-five percent of the increased east side soil N pool can be accounted for by increased N deposition commensurate with human settlement. Nitrogen emissions from fixed, mobile, and agricultural sources have increased dramatically since approximately 1950 to the east of the Colorado Front Range, as they have in many parts of the world. Our findings indicate even slight increases in atmospheric deposition lead to measurable changes in ecosystem properties. Received 16 November 1999; accepted 8 February 2000.  相似文献
3.
We explore the issues relevant to those types of ecosystems containing new combinations of species that arise through human action, environmental change, and the impacts of the deliberate and inadvertent introduction of species from other regions. Novel ecosystems (also termed 'emerging ecosystems') result when species occur in combinations and relative abundances that have not occurred previously within a given biome. Key characteristics are novelty, in the form of new species combinations and the potential for changes in ecosystem functioning, and human agency, in that these ecosystems are the result of deliberate or inadvertent human action. As more of the Earth becomes transformed by human actions, novel ecosystems increase in importance, but are relatively little studied. Either the degradation or invasion of native or 'wild' ecosystems or the abandonment of intensively managed systems can result in the formation of these novel systems. Important considerations are whether these new systems are persistent and what values they may have. It is likely that it may be very difficult or costly to return such systems to their previous state, and hence consideration needs to be given to developing appropriate management goals and approaches.  相似文献
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Although limnologists have long been interested in regional patterns in lake attributes, only recently have they considered lakes connected and organized across the landscape, rather than as spatially independent entities. Here we explore the spatial organization of lake districts through the concept of landscape position, a concept that considers lakes longitudinally along gradients of geomorphology and hydrology. We analyzed long-term chemical and biological data from nine lake chains (lakes in a series connected through surface or groundwater flow) from seven lake districts of diverse hydrologic and geomorphic settings across North America. Spatial patterns in lake variables driven by landscape position were surprisingly common across lake districts and across a wide range of variables. On the other hand, temporal patterns of lake variables, quantified using synchrony, the degree to which pairs of lakes exhibit similar dynamics through time, related to landscape position only for lake chains with lake water residence times that spanned a wide range and were generally long (close to or greater than 1 year). Highest synchrony of lakes within a lake chain occurred when lakes had short water residence times. Our results from both the spatial and temporal analyses suggest that certain features of the landscape position concept are robust enough to span a wide range of seemingly disparate lake types. The strong spatial patterns observed in this analysis, and some unexplained patterns, suggest the need to further study these scales and to continue to view lake ecosystems spatially, longitudinally, and broadly across the landscape.  相似文献
6.
The sources of both dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) to an alpine (Sky Pond) and a subalpine lake (The Loch) in Rocky Mountain National Park were explored for four years. The importance of both autochthonous and allochthonous sources of organic matter differ, not only between alpine and subalpine locations, but also seasonally. Overall, autochthonous sources dominate the organic carbon of the alpine lake, while allochthonous sources are a more significant source of organic carbon to the subalpine lake. In the alpine lake, Sky Pond, POC makes up greater than one third of the total organic matter content of the water column, and is related to phytoplankton abundance. Dissolved organic carbon is a product of within-lake activity in Sky Pond except during spring snowmelt and early summer (May–July), when stable carbon isotope ratios suggest a terrestrial source. In the subalpine lake, The Loch, DOC is a much more important constituent of water column organic material than POC, comprising greater than 90% of the spring snowmelt organic matter, and greater than 75% of the organic matter over the rest of the year. Stable carbon isotope ratios and a very strong relation of DOC with soluble Al(tot) indicate DOC concentrations are almost entirely related to flushing of soil water from the surrounding watershed during spring snowmelt. Stable carbon isotope ratios indicate that, for both lakes, phytoplankton is an important source of DOC in the winter, while terrestrial material of plant or microbial origin contributes DOC during snowmelt and summer.  相似文献
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We compared Englemann spruce biogeochemical processes in forest stands east and west of the Continental Divide in the Colorado Front Range. The divide forms a natural barrier for air pollutants such that nitrogen (N) emissions from the agricultural and urban areas of the South Platte River Basin are transported via upslope winds to high elevations on the east side but rarely cross over to the west side. Because there are far fewer emissions sources to the west, atmospheric N deposition is 1–2 kg N ha−1 y−1 on the west side, as compared with 3–5 kg N ha−1 y−1 on the east side. Species composition, elevation, aspect, parent material, site history, and climate were matched as closely as possible across six east and six west side old-growth forest stands. Higher N deposition sites had significantly lower organic horizon C:N and lignin:N ratios, lower foliar C:N ratios, as well as greater %N, higher N:Ca, N:Mg, and N:P ratios, and higher potential net mineralization rates. When C:N ratios dropped below 29, as they did in east-side organic horizon soils, mineralization rates increased linearly. Our results are comparable to those from studies of the northeastern United States and Europe that have found changes in forest biogeochemistry in response to N deposition inputs between 3 and 60 kg ha−1 y−1. Though they are low by comparison with more densely populated and agricultural regions, current levels of N deposition, have caused measurable changes in Englemann spruce forest biogeochemistry east of the Continental Divide in Colorado. Received 22 January 2001; accepted 11 June 2001.  相似文献
9.
We employed grass and forest versions of the CENTURY model under a range of N deposition values (0.02–1.60 g N m–2 y–1) to explore the possibility that high observed lake and stream N was due to terrestrial N saturation of alpine tundra and subalpine forest in Loch Vale Watershed, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. Model results suggest that N is limiting to subalpine forest productivity, but that excess leachate from alpine tundra is sufficient to account for the current observed stream N. Tundra leachate, combined with N leached from exposed rock surfaces, produce high N loads in aquatic ecosystems above treeline in the Colorado Front Range. A combination of terrestrial leaching, large N inputs from snowmelt, high watershed gradients, rapid hydrologic flushing and lake turnover times, and possibly other nutrient limitations of aquatic organisms constrain high elevation lakes and streams from assimilating even small increases in atmospheric N. CENTURY model simulations further suggest that, while increased N deposition will worsen the situation, nitrogen saturation is an ongoing phenomenon.  相似文献
10.
An ecological threshold is the point at which there is an abrupt change in an ecosystem quality, property or phenomenon, or where small changes in an environmental driver produce large responses in the ecosystem. Analysis of thresholds is complicated by nonlinear dynamics and by multiple factor controls that operate at diverse spatial and temporal scales. These complexities have challenged the use and utility of threshold concepts in environmental management despite great concern about preventing dramatic state changes in valued ecosystems, the need for determining critical pollutant loads and the ubiquity of other threshold-based environmental problems. In this paper we define the scope of the thresholds concept in ecological science and discuss methods for identifying and investigating thresholds using a variety of examples from terrestrial and aquatic environments, at ecosystem, landscape and regional scales. We end with a discussion of key research needs in this area.  相似文献
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