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In this study, Ecklonia cava was enzymatically hydrolyzed to prepare water-soluble extracts, using five carbohydrases (Viscozyme, Celluclast, AMG, Termamyl, and Ultaraflo) and five proteases (Protamex, Kojizyme, Neutase, Flavourzyme, and Alcalase), and the potential antioxidant activity of each was assessed. The Celluclast and Viscozyme extracts of E. cava evidenced good hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging activities (73.25% and 72.92%, respectively) as compared to those of other enzymatic extracts. Therefore, the Celluclast enzymatic extract was selected for use in further experiments, and separated into four different molecular weight fractions (<1, 1–10, 10–30 and >30 kDa). Among these fractions, the >30 kDa fraction manifested the most profound H2O2 scavenging activity, with a measured IC50 of 13 μg/ml. The >30 kDa fraction also strongly enhanced cell viability against H2O2-induced oxidative damage, and evidenced relatively good lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity in a Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79-4) cell line. This fraction also effected a reduction in the proportion of cells undergoing H2O2-induced apoptosis, as was demonstrated by a decreased quantity of sub-G1 hypodiploid cells and decreased apoptotic body formation on the flow cytometry assay. These results clearly indicate that the >30 kDa fraction of E. cava possesses good antioxidant activity against H2O2 mediated cell damage in vitro.  相似文献
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Immunoproteasomes are primarily induced upon infection and formed by replacing constitutive beta subunits with inducible beta subunits which possess specific cleavage properties that aid in the release of peptides necessary for MHC class I antigen presentation. In this study, we report the molecular characterization and expression analysis of the inducible immunosubunits PSMB8, PSMB9, PSMB9-L, and PSMB10 from rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus. The three subunits shared common active site residues and were placed in close proximity to fish homologues in the reconstructed phylogenetic tree, in which the mammalian homologues formed separate clades, indicating a common ancestral origin. The rock bream immunosubunits possessed higher identity and similarity with the fish homologues. RbPSMB8, RbPSMB9, RbPSMB9-L, and RbPSMB10 were multi-exonic genes with 6, 6, 7 and 8 exons, respectively. These four genes were constitutively expressed in all the examined tissues. Immunostimulants such as lipopolysaccharide and poly I:C induced RbPSMB8, RbPSMB9, RbPSMB9-L, and RbPSMB10 in liver and head kidney, suggesting their possible involvement in immune defense in rock bream.  相似文献
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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a large family of pattern recognition receptors, which are involved in triggering host immune responses against various pathogens by detecting their evolutionarily conserved pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). TLR21 is a non-mammalian type TLR, which recognizes unmethylated CpG DNA, and is considered as a functional homolog of mammalian TLR9. In this study, we attempted to identify and characterize a novel TLR21 counterpart from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) designated as RbTLR21, at molecular level. The complete coding sequence of RbTLR21 was 2919 bp in length, which encodes a polypeptide of 973 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 112 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 8.6. The structure of the deduced RbTLR21 protein is similar to that of the members of typical TLR family, and includes the ectodomain, which consists of 16 leucine rich repeats (LRRs), a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. According to the pairwise sequence analysis data, RbTLR21 was homologous to that of the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) with 76.9% amino acid identity. Furthermore, our phylogenetic analysis revealed that RbTLR21 is closely related to E. coioides TLR21. The RbTLR21 was ubiquitously expressed in all the tissues tested, but the highest expression was found in spleen. Additionally, upon stimulation with Streptococcus iniae, rock bream iridovirus (RBIV), and Edwardsiella tarda, RbTLR21 mRNA was significantly up-regulated in spleen tissues. Collectively, our findings suggest that RbTLR21 is indeed an ortholog of the TLR21 family and may be important in mounting host immune responses against pathogenic infections.  相似文献
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Light quality is a significant environmental factor that influences photosynthetic pigments in cyanobacteria. In the present study, we illuminated the marine cyanobacteria Synechococcus sp. with white (350 ~ 700 nm), red (630 nm), green (530 nm), and blue (450 nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs) and measured pigment levels (chlorophyll, carotenoid, and phycobiliprotein) and expression of photosynthesis-related genes (pebA, psbB, and psaE). The amount of photosynthetic pigments (total pigments, chlorophyll, and phycobiliproteins) was higher in the green and blue LED groups than in the white and red LED groups after 8 days of culture. The cells were prepared in a 1.5 mL solution for the analysis of the total pigments, chlorophyll, and carotenoid, and in a 2 mL for analysis of phycobiliproteins. The mRNA expression levels of pebA and psbB significantly increased after 8 days of cultivation under green and blue light, while the mRNA expression levels of psaE decreased. These results indicate that green and blue light increase the accumulation of photosynthetic pigments. In contrast red light induced mRNA expression of psaE and stimulated cell growth in Synechococcus sp.  相似文献
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The objective of this investigation was to quantify how thyroid hormone receptors of the sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, respond to salinity changes from freshwater (FW) to seawater (SW) conditions. Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) mRNA and protein expressions levels significantly increased when the fish were transferred from FW to SW, and the plasma T3 and T4 levels were significantly highest at 50 % SW and then maintained as control. Moreover, these parameters were significantly lower in the cortisol-injected groups than in the control. Hence, TRs, T3, and T4 may play a role in SW adaptation, when the fish migrate from FW to SW environments. We showed a negative correlation between cortisol and thyroid hormone levels, and a significant increase in plasma K+ levels in the kidney when the fish were transferred to SW, with levels being significantly lower in the cortisol-injected group. Hence, cortisol appears to be a stress hormone, and the plasma Na+ and Cl- levels significantly increased when the fish were transferred to SW, with levels being significantly lower in the cortisol-injected group. These results indicate that cortisol modulates ion transportation in the plasma.  相似文献
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Mollusks lack an adaptive immune system and rely solely on the innate immune response. The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway is one of the most important components of the innate immune system and its activity is regulated by physical interaction with the inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) protein. The manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum (Rp), is a key species of the world’s aquaculture industry, and recent pathogenic threats, such as the Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-expressing Vibrio tapetis bacteria, have produced severe adverse economic impacts. Here, we describe identification, characterization and immune responses of novel IκB (Rp-IκB) in the manila clam. The Rp-IκB cDNA is comprised of a 1,032 bp open reading frame, which encodes 343 amino acid residues and has a predicted molecular mass of 38 kDa. The Rp-IκB protein exhibits typical structural features of IκB family members, including the IκB degradation motif, PEST sequence, and six ankyrin repeats. Phylogenetic analysis showed that manila clam and other known molluscan IκB proteins grouped together in the invertebrate cluster. Analysis of the tissue expression distribution revealed that Rp-IκB was ubiquitously expressed. However, immune challenge with V. tapetis and purified LPS endotoxin induced significant up-regulation of Rp-IκB expression in gill and hemocytes. These results indicated that Rp-IκB may play an important role in manila clam defense against bacterial infection.  相似文献
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