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1.
In this study, data are presented on serologic H-2 typing of 320 wild mice collected in several parts of Europe and Egypt. The sample was typed for 39 class I (K, D) and 16 class II (Ia) antigens. The phenotype frequencies of class I and class II antigens showed high variability in their distribution among different areas, ranging from absence or presence in low frequency in one area to presence in about one-half of the mice in another area. The average phenotypic frequency of class I private antigens was 6.3%; at least 60% of class I alleles (blanks) could not be identified with the available reagents. The data suggest that there might be more than 100 alleles for each class I locus, H-2K and H-2D. The average phenotypic frequencies of Ia-1 private antigens was 10.8%. About 75% of Ia-1 alleles (blanks) could not be identified. The number of Ia-1 alleles was estimated to be in the range of 20 to 50.  相似文献
2.
Inter-comparison of absorbed dose rates for non-human biota   总被引:5,自引:3,他引:2  
A number of approaches have been proposed to estimate the exposure of non-human biota to ionizing radiation. This paper reports an inter-comparison of the unweighted absorbed dose rates for the whole organism (compared as dose conversion coefficients, or DCCs) for both internal and external exposure, estimated by 11 of these approaches for selected organisms from the Reference Animals and Plants geometries as proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Inter-comparison results indicate that DCCs for internal exposure compare well between the different approaches, whereas variation is greater for external exposure DCCs. Where variation among internal DCCs is greatest, it is generally due to different daughter products being included in the DCC of the parent. In the case of external exposures, particularly to low-energy beta-emitters, variations are most likely to be due to different media densities being assumed. On a radionuclide-by-radionuclide basis, the different approaches tend to compare least favourably for (3)H, (14)C and the alpha-emitters. This is consistent with models with different source/target geometry assumptions showing maximum variability in output for the types of radiation having the lowest range across matter. The intercomparison demonstrated that all participating approaches to biota dose calculation are reasonably comparable, despite a range of different assumptions being made.  相似文献
3.
Gastric administration of human gamma-globulin (HGG) into adult A/J mice leads to the establishment of an antigen-specific unresponsive state to subsequent parenteral challenge with HGG. An unresponsive state is induced in both helper T and B lymphocyte populations. Unresponsiveness in helper T cells is of longer duration than in B cells, lasting at least 9 wk after intragastric intubation. Adoptive cell transfer of spleen cells from gastrically inoculated mice into healthy irradiated, syngeneic recipients revealed that the unresponsive state is stable upon cell transfer and that suppressor cells are present in the spleens of gastrically tolerized mice. The establishment of HGG-specific unresponsiveness is dependent upon both the dose and the form of the antigen adminstered. Soluble and deaggregated HGG are both more efficient than is heat-aggregated HGG in inducing unresponsiveness gastrically. The administered HGG is rapidly eliminated from the animal and only a small fraction reaches the circulation as immunoreactive protein. Although the cellular parameters of the systemic unresponsiveness induced by intragastric intubation with HGG appear similar to the parameters of parenterally induced unresponsiveness, the precise mechanisms by which gastric unresponsive states are established remain to be resolved.  相似文献
4.
Despite the well known interrelationship between the CD2- and CD3-mediated signal transduction pathways, it is not well established whether the CD2 surface expression can be regulated by triggering of TCR/CD3 complex. In this study we show that the stimulation of human PBMC with the Cris-7 (CD3) mAb, both in soluble and particulate form, results in hyperexpression of the CD2 surface Ag, as assessed by immunofluorescence and semi-quantitative immunoprecipitation assays. Similar effects on CD2 surface expression were obtained when different CD3 mAb (OKT3, RW2-8C8 and Leu-4) were tested. The CD3-mediated CD2 up-regulation was suppressed by cycloheximide and actinomycin D, indicating that it requires de novo protein and RNA synthesis. In agreement with this, increased CD2 RNA levels were observed after 3 h of stimulation, reaching a plateau at 24 h that was maintained for 72 h. The CD2 up-regulation was concomitant to other CD3-induced activation-related events such as induction of surface CD25 and CD71 and high RNA levels for c-myc, IL-2R alpha- and beta-chains, CD71, and IFN-gamma. CD2 up-regulation appeared to be elicited by a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism because it was abrogated by staurosporine, a potent protein kinase C inhibitor. Moreover, IL-2-dependent events may also help in enhancing CD2 hyper-expression because it was only partially inhibitable by cyclosporine, dexamethasone, or Mar-108 (CD25) mAb. In conclusion, our data suggest that CD2 up-regulation can be a relevant event in T cell activation triggered by the physiologic engagement of the TCR/CD3 complex.  相似文献
5.
The use of flow cytometry in microbiology allows rapid characterization of cells from a nonhomogeneous population. A method based on flow cytometry to assess the effects of lethal agents and the bacterial survival in starved cultures through the use of membrane potential-sensitive dyes and a nucleic acid marker is presented. The use of propidium iodide, rhodamine, and oxonol has facilitated the differentiation of cells of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium of various states of vitality following various treatments (heat, sonication, electroporation, and incubation with gramicidin) and during starvation in artificial seawater. The fluorescence intensity is directly correlated with viable cell counts for rhodamine 123 labelling, whereas oxonol and propidium iodide labelling is inversely correlated with viable counts. The distribution of rhodamine and oxonol uptake during starvation-survival clearly indicates that single-species starved bacteria are heterogeneous populations, and flow cytometry can be a fundamental tool for quantifying this heterogeneity.  相似文献
6.
Abstract Flow cytometry was used to study the lag, exponential, stationary and death phases of non-fixed cultures of Escherichia coli . Fluctuations in the forward angle scatter signal (FALS) were compared with cell size as measured by scanning electron microscopy at low temperature and image analysis. A correlation between FALS and cell size was not observed, although a correlation (r = −0.8) was obtained between FALS and the age of the culture for the first eleven days of incubation. Marked increases in FALS were observed during the lag phase, which were attributed both to changes in size and changes in structure or chemical composition. The distribution of FALS for all culture phases was asymmetric, and was associated with the cell size distribution.  相似文献
7.
Three nucleic acid dyes (SYTO-13, TOTO-1, and YOYO-1) were tested on cultures of Escherichia coli and marine prokaryote populations. These dyes stain the RNA and DNA in E. coli but only respond to DNA in marine populations, according to the histograms obtained after DNase and RNase treatments.  相似文献
8.
When strain C3 of Klebsiella pneumoniae is grown on a minimal medium with excess glucose, isocitrate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, and succinate dehydrogenase specific activities increase in the last period of the exponential growth phase and in the beginning of the stationary phase. Glucose exhaustion does not alter the development of malate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase, but specific activities are higher than those obtained with excess glucose. In contrast, glucose exhaustion can be correlated with a decrease of isocitrate dehydrogenase specific activity in the stationary phase. Induction of strain C3 isocitrate dehydrogenase by glucose in complex medium and repression by cAMP in mineral medium were observed. Glucose induction and the NADP/NADPH ratio are suggested as regulatory mechanisms controlling isocitrate dehydrogenase synthesis in the Enterobacteriaceae, but the former appears to be restricted to some Klebsiella strains.  相似文献
9.
Flow cytometry was used to study starvation of Escherichia coli in artificial sea water. Flow cytometric narrow-angle light scatter was compared and assessed in relation to the cell sizes obtained by scanning electron microscopy at low temperature, and by image analysis. A correlation between narrow-angle light scatter and cell size was not observed, although an acceptable correlation (γ= -0.845) between narrow-angle light scatter and the starvation period was observed. On the other hand, the distribution of narrow-angle light scatter at any given moment of culture is asymmetric and may be associated with the cell size distribution at the specific moment of starvation.  相似文献
10.
The accumulation of cytoplasmic polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and the heterogeneity of bacterial populations were analysed by flow cytometry and SYTO-13 and Nile red staining in rhamnolipid-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultures grown in waste frying oil as carbon source. A combination of SYTO-13 and Nile red fluorescence with cytometric forward and side scatter values may allow increases in the final production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) by two basic mechanisms: (i) rapid assessment of polyhydroxyalkanoate content and (ii) definition of flow cytometric cell sorting protocols to select high polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-producing strains. We report a rapid (less than 30 min) flow cytometric assessment of PHAs in Pseudomonas aeruginosa 47T2 following Nile red staining: (i) to estimate cellular PHAs content; (ii) to study heterogeneity of the batch cultures producing PHAs and (iii) to establish the basis for sorting sub-populations with a high capacity to accumulate PHAs.  相似文献
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