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The removal of phenol, ortho- (o-) and para- (p-)cresol was studied with two series of UASB reactors using unacclimatized granular sludges bioaugmented with a consortium enriched against these substances. The parameters studied were the amount of inoculum added to the sludges and the method of immobilization of the inoculum. Two methods were used, adsorption to the biomass or encapsulation within calcium alginate beads. In the bioaugmentation by adsorption experiment, and with a 10% inoculum, complete phenol removal was obtained after 36 d, while 178 d were required in the control reactor. For p-cresol, 95% removal was obtained in the bioaugmented reactor on day 48 while 60 d were required to achieve 90% removal in the control reactor. For o-cresol, the removals were only marginally better with the bioaugmented reactors. Tests performed with the reactors biomass under non-limiting substrate concentrations showed that the specific activities of the bioaugmented biomasses were larger than the original biomass for phenol, and p-cresol even after 276 of operations, showing that the inoculum bacteria successfully colonized the sludge granules. Immobilization of the inoculum by encapsulation in calcium alginate beads, was performed with 10% of the inoculum. Results showed that the best activities were obtained when the consortium was encapsulated alone and the beads added to the sludges. This reactor presented excellent activity and the highest removal of the various phenolic compounds a few days after start-up. After 90 d, a high-phenolic compounds removal was still observed, demonstrating the effectiveness of the encapsulation technique for the start-up and maintenance of high-removal activities.  相似文献
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Electrolysis-enhanced anaerobic digestion of wastewater   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
This study demonstrates enhanced methane production from wastewater in laboratory-scale anaerobic reactors equipped with electrodes for water electrolysis. The electrodes were installed in the reactor sludge bed and a voltage of 2.8-3.5 V was applied resulting in a continuous supply of oxygen and hydrogen. The oxygen created micro-aerobic conditions, which facilitated hydrolysis of synthetic wastewater and reduced the release of hydrogen sulfide to the biogas. A portion of the hydrogen produced electrolytically escaped to the biogas improving its combustion properties, while another part was converted to methane by hydrogenotrophic methanogens, increasing the net methane production. The presence of oxygen in the biogas was minimized by limiting the applied voltage. At a volumetric energy consumption of 0.2-0.3 Wh/LR, successful treatment of both low and high strength synthetic wastewaters was demonstrated. Methane production was increased by 10-25% and reactor stability was improved in comparison to a conventional anaerobic reactor.  相似文献
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AIMS: To understand the microbial ecology underlying trichloethene (TCE) degradation in a coupled anaerobic/aerobic single stage (CANOXIS) reactor oxygenated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor. METHODS AND RESULTS: The molecular study of the microbial population dynamics and a phylogenetic characterization were conducted using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). In both reactors, TCE had a toxic effect on two uncultured bacterial populations whereas oxygen favoured the growth of aerobic species belonging to Rhizobiaceae and Dechloromonas. No methanotrophic bacteria were detected when targeting 16S rRNA gene with universal primers. Alternatively, pmo gene encoding the particulate methane monooxygenase of Methylomonas sp. LW21 could be detected in the coupled reactor when H2O2 was supplied at 0.7 g O2 l day(-1). CONCLUSIONS: Methylomonas sp. LW21 that could be responsible for the aerobic degradation of the TCE by-products is not among the predominant bacterial populations in the coupled reactor. It seems to have been outcompeted by heterotrophic bacteria (Rhizobiaceae and Dechloromonas sp.) for oxygen. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The results obtained show the limitations of the coupled reactor examined in this study. Further investigations should focus on the operating conditions of this reactor in order to favour the growth of the methanotrophs.  相似文献
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Encapsulated cell bioaugmentation is a novel alternative solution to in situ bioremediation of contaminated aquifers. This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of such a remediation strategy based on the performance of encapsulated cells in the biodegradation of gasoline, a major groundwater contaminant. An enriched bacterial consortium, isolated from a gasoline-polluted site, was encapsulated in gellan gum microbeads (16-53 microm diameter). The capacity of the encapsulated cells to degrade gasoline under aerobic conditions was evaluated in comparison with free (non-encapsulated) cells. Encapsulated cells (2.6 mg(cells) x g(-1) bead) degraded over 90% gasoline hydrocarbons (initial concentration 50-600 mg x L(-1)) within 5-10 days at 10 degrees C. Equivalent levels of free cells removed comparable amounts of gasoline (initial concentration 50-400 mg x L(-1)) within the same period but required up to 30 days to degrade the highest level of gasoline tested (600 mg x L(-1)). Free cells exhibited a lag phase in biodegradation, which increased from 1 to 5 days with an increase in gasoline concentration (200-600 x mg L(-1)). Encapsulation provided cells with a protective barrier against toxic hydrocarbons, eliminating the adaptation period required by free cells. The reduction of encapsulated cell mass loading from 2.6 to 1.0 mg(cells) x g(-1) bead caused a substantial decrease in the extent of biodegradation within a 30-day incubation period. Encapsulated cells dispersed within the porous soil matrix of saturated soil microcosms demonstrated a reduced performance in the removal of gasoline (initial concentrations of 400 and 600 mg x L(-1)), removing 30-50% gasoline hydrocarbons compared to 40-60% by free cells within 21 days of incubation. The results of this study suggest that gellan gum-encapsulated bacterial cells have the potential to be used for biodegradation of gasoline hydrocarbons in aqueous systems.  相似文献
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The fate of N from sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) tops returned to the soil (50 T ha-1) in autumn 1986 before sowing winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and from NaNO3 split-applied in 3 equal dressings (at tillering, stem elongation and flag leaf stages) was studied using isotopically labelled 15N in open stainless-steel cylinders pressed into the soil.At harvest, the percentage utilization (PU) of N from sugarbeet was very low (6.66%) and negatively influenced by fertilizer N (5.59%), while that of fertilizer N was rather high (69.64%) and unchanged by addition of tops. Residual N in soil represented 25.9% of the amount applied in tops and ranged from 33% for the tillering application to 21% for the flag leaf application. N losses (mainly denitrification) from sugar beet tops amounted to 67% and were very low for mineral fertilizer (less than 5%).  相似文献
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In a field experiment performed in microplots, winter wheat was fertilized at two different total N dressings (135 and 180 kg ha–1) split-applied as Na15NO3 in three equal applications at tillering, stem elongation, and flag leaf.No significant differences were found in the percentage recovery values for the entire plant at the three split applications between the two N dressings. The total percentage recovery of fertilizer N by the plant was high and practically equal at both fertilization levels (76.65% and 75.84% for 135 and 180 kg N ha–1, respectively); crop yields were also similar. In contrast, gaseous losses calculated after drawing up the balance sheet were, in absolute values, higher for the tillering and stem elongation split applications when using the 180 kg N ha–1 dressing (7.67 and 4.84 kg N ha–1, respectively) than for the 135 kg N ha–1 dressing (3.45 and 1.26 kg N ha–1, respectively). They were found to be zero at flag leaf at both fertilization levels. The amount of applied fertilizer N did not influence the amount of N taken up from the soil which was about 143 kg ha–1.  相似文献
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