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1.
C Yanisch-Perron  J Vieira  J Messing 《Gene》1985,33(1):103-119
Three kinds of improvements have been introduced into the M13-based cloning systems. (1) New Escherichia coli host strains have been constructed for the E. coli bacteriophage M13 and the high-copy-number pUC-plasmid cloning vectors. Mutations introduced into these strains improve cloning of unmodified DNA and of repetitive sequences. A new suppressorless strain facilitates the cloning of selected recombinants. (2) The complete nucleotide sequences of the M13mp and pUC vectors have been compiled from a number of sources, including the sequencing of selected segments. The M13mp18 sequence is revised to include the G-to-T substitution in its gene II at position 6 125 bp (in M13) or 6967 bp in M13mp18. (3) M13 clones suitable for sequencing have been obtained by a new method of generating unidirectional progressive deletions from the polycloning site using exonucleases HI and VII.  相似文献
2.
J Messing  J Vieira 《Gene》1982,19(3):269-276
The strategy of shotgun cloning with M13 is based on obtaining random fragments used for the rapid accumulation of sequence data. A strategy, however, is sometimes needed for obtaining subcloned sequences preferentially out of a mixture of fragments. Shotgun sequencing experiments have shown that not all DNA fragments are obtained with the same frequency and that the redundant information increases during the last third of a sequencing project. In addition, experiments have shown that particular fragments are obtained more frequently in one orientation, allowing the use of only one of the two DNA strands as a template for M13 shotgun sequencing. Two new M13 vectors, M13mp8 and M13mp9, have been constructed that permit the cloning of the same restriction fragment in both possible orientations. Consequently, each of the two strands becomes a (+) strand in a pair of vectors. The fragments to be cloned are cleaved with two restriction enzymes to produce a fragment with two different ends. The insertion of such a fragment into the vector can occur only in one orientation. Since M13mp8 and M13mp9 have their array of cloning sites in an antiparallel order, either orientation for inserting a double-digest fragment can be selected by the choice of the vector.  相似文献
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A maize (Zea mays L.) endosperm cell culture has been shown to efficiently replicate DNA sequences derived from wheat dwarf virus (WDV), a monopartite monocot geminivirus. To analyze sequences necessary for viral replication and to verify their application for a plant gene expression vector, we have developed a 3.7 kilobase pairs Escherichia coli--plant cell shuttle vector, pWI-11. The p15A origin of replication, functional in E. coli, was introduced into the viral sequences. We have replaced the coding region of the coat protein gene by that of bacterial neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPT II) gene. The resulting NPT II gene fusion can serve as a selectable marker in both plant and E. coli systems. Into a unique cloning site in this pWI-11 vector, we introduced a gene fusion carrying the bacterial beta-glucuronidase (GUS) coding region under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) gene promoter and terminator. By transferring these viral sequences into protoplasts derived from maize endosperm cell cultures, we have demonstrated that the plasmid pWI-11 can replicate in maize endosperm cells, that the GUS reporter gene introduced into pWI-11 can be expressed at high level in the transformed cells, and that the replicating viral DNA can be rescued from endosperm cells by transforming E. coli in the presence of kanamycin. The level of GUS gene expression increased progressively in transformed endosperm cells during a prolonged culture period, coinciding with replication of the viral sequences in these cells.  相似文献
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The nucleotide sequence of a mitochondrial replicon from maize   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
S R Ludwig  R F Pohlman  J Vieira  A G Smith  J Messing 《Gene》1985,38(1-3):131-138
The 1913-bp maize mitochondrial (mt) plasmid was isolated from a suspension culture of a Black Mexican Sweet maize strain, cloned into M13mp vectors, and sequenced by a unidirectional progressive deletion method. The 1.9-kb extrachromosomal double-stranded circular DNA plasmid was found to contain regions of sequence which in other systems are known to be part of origins of replication (ori). This plasmid could be used as a carrier for chimeric genes and a molecular probe for replication.  相似文献
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Chemical modification studies have been conducted on spinach ferredoxin to determine the nature of the groups on ferredoxin involved in its interaction with its reaction partners. Modification of a limited number (three or four) carboxyl groups or of the single histidine residue resulted in a decreased ability of ferredoxin to participate in NADP photoreduction but not in cytochrome c photoreduction, suggesting that these groups may be involved in interaction with ferredoxin:NADP reductase but are not involved in interaction with the reducing side of Photosystem I. In contrast, modification of amino groups or the single arginine residue on ferredoxin had little effect on the ability of ferredoxin to participate in NADP photoreduction, suggesting these groups are not involved in the interaction of ferredoxin with either ferredoxin:NADP reductase or the reducing side of Photosystem I. Attempts to modify tyrosine residues on ferredoxin resulted in destruction of the iron-sulfur center of the protein.  相似文献
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Ferredoxin which had been modified with glycine ethylester in the presence of a water-soluble carbodiimide to the extent of one carboxyl-group modified per ferredoxin was subjected to peptide mapping in an attempt to locate the site(s) of modification. The peptide mapping was done by HPLC and analysis of the resulting chromatogram allowed assignment of peaks to various segments in the amino acid sequences of the two isozymes of ferredoxin. The modified ferredoxin appeared to be a mixture of ferredoxin derivatives in which modification had occurred in three areas of the molecule. Although unable to identify the specific residues modified, it has been shown that modification is localized in the regions of residues 26-30, 65-70, and 92-94. The possibility that these regions of ferredoxin may define its binding site for ferredoxin: NADP reductase is discussed. Peptide mapping studies on a covalently linked adduct between ferredoxin and ferredoxin: NADP reductase also support these regions of ferredoxin as being important in the interaction between the two proteins.  相似文献
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Plating methods are still the golden standard in microbiology; however, some studies have shown that these techniques can underestimate the microbial concentrations and diversity. A nutrient shock is one of the mechanisms proposed to explain this phenomenon. In this study, a tentative method to assess nutrient shock effects was tested. FINDINGS: To estimate the extent of nutrient shock effects, two strains isolated from tap water (Sphingomonas capsulata and Methylobacterium sp.) and two culture collection strains (E. coli CECT 434 and Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525) were exposed both to low and high nutrient conditions for different times and then placed in low nutrient medium (R2A) and rich nutrient medium (TSA). The average improvement (A.I.) of recovery between R2A and TSA for the different times was calculated to more simply assess the difference obtained in culturability between each medium. As expected, A.I. was higher when cells were plated after the exposition to water than when they were recovered from high-nutrient medium showing the existence of a nutrient shock for the diverse bacteria used. S. capsulata was the species most affected by this phenomenon. CONCLUSIONS: This work provides a method to consistently determine the extent of nutrient shock effects on different microorganisms and hence quantify the ability of each species to deal with sudden increases in substrate concentration.  相似文献
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