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1.
The binding of the CD4 receptor by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 exterior envelope glycoprotein is important for virus entry and cytopathic effect. To investigate the CD4-binding region of the gp120 glycoprotein, we altered gp120 amino acids, excluding cysteines, that are conserved among the primate immunodeficiency viruses utilizing the CD4 receptor. Changes in two hydrophobic regions (Thr-257 in conserved region 2 and Trp-427 in conserved region 4) and two hydrophilic regions (Asp-368 and Glu-370 in conserved region 3 and Asp-457 in conserved region 4) resulted in significant reductions in CD4 binding. For most of the mutations affecting these residues, the observed effects on CD4 binding did not apparently result from global conformational disruption of the gp120 molecule, as assessed by measurements of precursor processing, subunit association, and monoclonal antibody recognition. The two hydrophilic regions exhibit a strong propensity for beta-turn formation, are predicted to act as efficient B-cell epitopes, and are located adjacent to hypervariable, glycosylated regions. This study defines a small number of gp120 residues important for CD4 binding, some of which might constitute attractive targets for immunologic intervention.  相似文献
2.
Rapid assays which measure the ability of mutant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoproteins to mediate cell-free and/or cell-to-cell transmission of virus are described. By using these assays, envelope glycoprotein mutants with varying degrees of syncytium-forming ability were tested for ability to complement viral replication in trans. As expected, mutants that dramatically affect association of the gp120-gp41 envelope subunits, CD4 binding, or membrane fusion were unable to form syncytia or to support cell-free or cell-to-cell transmission. Surprisingly, some membrane fusion-defective mutants significantly attenuated in syncytium-forming ability were able to complement viral replication. Conversely, mutations in the carboxyl terminus of gp41 transmembrane glycoprotein, although not affecting syncytium-forming ability, significantly attenuated both forms of virus transmission. These results indicate that syncytium formation is not sufficient for cell-to-cell transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Furthermore, virus transmission appears to be less sensitive to inhibition of membrane fusion than is syncytium formation.  相似文献
3.
Sequences required for efficient packaging of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genome RNA into virus particles were identified. Deletion of 19 base pairs between the 5' long terminal repeat and the gag gene initiation codon of HIV-1 resulted in a virus markedly attenuated for replication in human T lymphocytes. The mutant virus was characterized by nearly wild-type ability to encode viral proteins and to produce virion particles. The mutant virions exhibited a significant reduction in the content of HIV-1-specific RNA. These results identify an important component of the HIV-1 packaging signal.  相似文献
4.
While one hypervariable, linear neutralizing determinant on the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 envelope glycoprotein has been well characterized, little is known about the conserved, discontinuous gp120 epitopes recognized by neutralizing antibodies in infected individuals. Here, the epitope recognized by a broadly reactive neutralizing monoclonal antibody (F105) derived from an HIV-1-infected patient was characterized by examining the effects of changes in conserved gp120 amino acids on antibody reactivity. The F105 epitope was disrupted by changes in gp120 amino acids 256 and 257, 368 to 370, 421, and 470 to 484, which is consistent with the discontinuous nature of the epitope. Three of these regions are proximal to those previously shown to be important for CD4 binding, which is consistent with the ability of the F105 antibody to block gp120-CD4 interaction. Since F105 recognition was more sensitive to amino acid changes in each of the four identified gp120 regions than was envelope glycoprotein function, replication-competent mutant viruses that escaped neutralization by the F105 antibody were identified. These studies identify a conserved, functional HIV-1 gp120 epitope that is immunogenic in man and may serve as a target for therapeutic or prophylactic intervention.  相似文献
5.
Insertion of four amino acids into various locations within the amino-terminal halves of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 or gp41 envelope glycoprotein disrupts the noncovalent association of these two envelope subunits (M. Kowalski, J. Potz, L. Basiripour, T. Dorfman, W. C. Goh, E. Terwilliger, A. Dayton, C. Rosen, W. A. Haseltine, and J. Sodroski, Science 237:1351-1355, 1987). To localize the determinants on the gp120 envelope glycoprotein important for subunit association, amino acids conserved among primate immunodeficiency viruses were changed. Substitution mutations affecting either of two highly conserved regions located at the amino (residues 36 to 45) and carboxyl (residues 491 to 501) ends of the mature gp120 molecule resulted in nearly complete dissociation of the envelope glycoprotein subunits. Partial dissociation phenotypes were observed for some changes affecting residues in the third and fourth conserved gp120 regions. These results suggest that hydrophobic regions at both ends of the gp120 glycoprotein contribute to noncovalent association with the gp41 transmembrane glycoprotein.  相似文献
6.
Monoclonal antibodies have been isolated from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients that recognize discontinuous epitopes on the gp120 envelope glycoprotein, that block gp120 interaction with the CD4 receptor, and that neutralize a variety of HIV-1 isolates. Using a panel of HIV-1 gp120 mutants, we identified amino acids important for precipitation of the gp120 glycoprotein by three different monoclonal antibodies with these properties. These amino acids are located within seven discontinuous, conserved regions of the gp120 glycoprotein, four of which overlap those regions previously shown to be important for CD4 recognition. The pattern of sensitivity to amino acid change in these seven regions differed for each antibody and also differed from that of the CD4 glycoprotein. These results indicate that the CD4 receptor and this group of broadly neutralizing antibodies recognize distinct but overlapping gp120 determinants.  相似文献
7.
The contributions of the first and second variable regions of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 glycoprotein to envelope glycoprotein structure, function, and recognition by a neutralizing antibody were studied. Several mutants with substitutions in the V2 loop demonstrated complete dissociation of the gp120 and gp41 glycoproteins, suggesting that inappropriate changes in V2 conformation can affect subunit assembly. Some glycoproteins with changes in V1 or V2 were efficiently expressed on the cell surface and were able to bind CD4 but were deficient in syncytium formation and/or virus entry. Recognition of gp120 by the neutralizing monoclonal antibody G3-4 was affected by particular substitutions affecting residues 176 to 184 in the V2 loop. These results suggest that the V1/V2 variable regions of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 glycoprotein play a role in postreceptor binding events in the membrane fusion process and can act as a target for neutralizing antibodies.  相似文献
8.
N Sullivan  Y Sun  J Li  W Hofmann    J Sodroski 《Journal of virology》1995,69(7):4413-4422
The structure, replicative properties, and sensitivity to neutralization by soluble CD4 and monoclonal antibodies were examined for molecularly cloned envelope glycoproteins derived from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viruses either isolated directly from patients or passaged in T-cell lines. Complementation of virus entry into peripheral blood mononuclear cell targets by primary patient envelope glycoproteins exhibited efficiencies ranging from that observed for the HXBc2 envelope glycoproteins, which are derived from a T-cell line-passaged virus, to approximately fivefold-lower values. The ability of the envelope glycoproteins to complement virus entry roughly correlated with sensitivity to neutralization by soluble CD4. Laboratory-adapted viruses were sensitive to neutralization by monoclonal antibodies directed against the CD4-binding site and the third variable (V3) loop of the gp120 glycoprotein. By comparison, viruses with envelope glycoproteins from primary patient isolates exhibited decreased sensitivity to neutralization by these monoclonal antibodies; for these viruses, neutralization sensitivity correlated with replicative ability. Subinhibitory concentrations of soluble CD4 and a CD4-binding site-directed antibody significantly enhanced the entry of viruses containing envelope glycoproteins from some primary patient isolates. The sensitivity of viruses containing the different envelope glycoproteins to neutralization by soluble CD4 or monoclonal antibodies could be predicted by assays dependent on the binding of the inhibitory molecule to the oligomeric envelope glycoprotein complex but less well by assays measuring binding to the monomeric gp120 glycoprotein. These results indicate that the intrinsic structure of the oligomeric envelope glycoprotein complex of primary HIV-1 isolates, while often less than optimal with respect to the mediation of early events in virus replication, allows a relative degree of resistance to neutralizing antibodies. The interplay of selective forces for higher virus replication efficiency and resistance to neutralizing antibodies could explain the temporal course described for the in vivo emergence of HIV-1 isolates with differing phenotypes.  相似文献
9.
We have probed the structures of monomeric and oligomeric gp120 glycoproteins from the LAI isolate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) with a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs); most of these MAbs are directed against continuous epitopes. On native monomeric gp120, most of the first conserved (C1) domain is accessible to MAbs, although some regions of C1 are relatively inaccessible. All of the MAbs directed against the C2, C3, and C5 domains bind preferentially to denatured monomeric gp120, indicating that these regions of gp120 are poorly accessible on the native monomer, although the extreme C terminus in C5 is well exposed. Segments of the V1, V2, and V3 loops are exposed on the surface of monomeric gp120, although the base of the V3 loop is inaccessible. A portion of C4 is also available for MAb binding on monomeric gp120, as is the extreme C terminus in C5. However, on oligomeric gp120-gp41 complexes, only the V2 and V3 loops (and perhaps V1) are well exposed and a segment of the C4 region is partially exposed; continuous epitopes in C1 and C5 that are accessible to antibodies on monomeric gp120 are occluded on the oligomer. Although deletion of the V1, V2, and V3 loops resulted in increased exposure of several discontinuous epitopes overlapping the CD4-binding site, the exposure of most continuous epitopes on the monomeric gp120 glycoprotein was not affected. These results imply a HIV-1 gp120 structure in which the conserved continuous determinants are inaccessible; in some cases, this inaccessibility is due to intramolecular interactions between conserved regions, and in other cases, it is due to intermolecular interactions with other components of the glycoprotein spike. These findings have implications for the design of subunit vaccines based on gp120.  相似文献
10.
Changes were introduced into conserved amino acids within the ectodomain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp41 transmembrane envelope glycoprotein. The effect of these changes on the structure and function of the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins was examined. The gp41 glycoprotein contains an amino-terminal fusion peptide (residues 512 to 527) and a disulfide loop near the middle of the extracellular domain (residues 598 to 604). Mutations affecting the hydrophobic sequences between these two regions resulted in two phenotypes. Some changes in amino acids 528 to 562 resulted in a loss of the noncovalent association between gp41 and the gp120 exterior glycoprotein. Amino acid changes in other parts of the gp41 glycoprotein (residues 608 and 628) also resulted in subunit dissociation. Some changes affecting amino acids 568 to 596 resulted in envelope glycoproteins partially or completely defective in mediating membrane fusion. Syncytium formation was more sensitive than virus entry to these changes. Changes in several amino acids from 647 to 675 resulted in higher-than-wild-type syncytium-forming ability. One of these amino acid changes affecting tryptophan 666 resulted in escape from neutralization by an anti-gp41 human monoclonal antibody, 2F5. These results contribute to an understanding of the functional regions of the HIV-1 gp41 ectodomain.  相似文献
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