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Enterococci are frequently associated with hospital-acquired infection. Identification of enterococci using conventional biochemical tests are often tedious to perform in a routine diagnostic laboratory and may give equivocal results. This study evaluates the usefulness of ribotyping by DNA hybridisation to identify 68 members of the bacterial genus Enterococcus characterised by a conventional test scheme. DNA probes (830 bp in size) were derived from the 16S rRNA gene of E. coli or E. faecalis by PCR, labelled with horseradish peroxidase and used in Southern blot hybridisations of enterococcal DNA digested with EcoRI. Unique ribotypes were obtained for 11 different species using 12 Enterococcus type strains. Ribotyping identified 44 E. faecalis isolates, 19 E. faecium isolates, two E. durans isolates and one E. avium isolate in concordance with results of the biochemistry tests. Two isolates that had ribotype patterns identical to the E. faecium type strain were unable to be definitively identified by biochemical tests. The results show that ribotyping is able to differentiate between E. faecium and E. faecalis and may be useful for identifying other enterococci in the hospital setting. In addition, ribotyping using DNA probes and enhanced chemiluminescence is a safe and more reproducible alternative to radiolabelling RNA in a clinical microbiology laboratory.  相似文献
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Essentiality of insulin and prolactin for accumulation of rat casein mRNAs   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Fetal calf serum (20%) does not substitute for insulin in terms of enhanced accumulation of rat casein mRNAs, but it can sustain the mammary tissue in culture. This property of fetal calf serum was utilized to show that in the presence of cortisol and 1) insulin or 2) prolactin, the delayed addition of prolactin or insulin, respectively, produced similar enhancement of 25 K and 42 K casein mRNAs. The results indicate that both insulin and prolactin are required for accumulation of rat casein mRNAs, the accumulation is independent of the sequence of addition of these hormones, and that the response cannot be ascribed entirely to the hormone added last.  相似文献
3.
It is demonstrated that the accumulation of 42 K casein mRNA in mammary tissue from adrenalectomized, virgin rats is almost 20x higher in the presence of exogenous hydrocortisone than in its absence. Accumulation of 25 K casein mRNA in this tissue is totally dependent on the steroid. The results indicate a much greater dependency on hydrocortisone than was appreciated previously, and also show that this dependency does not reflect a loss of cell viability in the absence of the steroid.  相似文献
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In order to investigate the polymorphism of Alu insertions (POALINs) in the HLA region, we genotyped ten Alu loci (AluMICB, AluTF, AluHJ, AluHG, AluHF in the HLA class I region and AluDPB2, AluDQA2, AluDQA1, AluDRB1, AluORF10 in the HLA class II region) to determine their allele frequencies and associations with the HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C and HLA-DRB1 genes in the Chinese Han population. Our results showed the ten-loci POALINs varied in frequency between 0.003 and 0.425. By comparing the data of the ten-loci POALIN in Chinese Han with Japanese and Caucasian data, marked differences were observed between the three ethnic groups at the allelic or haplotypic levels. Each POALIN was in significant linkage disequilibrium with a variety of HLA-A, -B, -C and -DRB1 alleles, and was associated with a variety of HLA-A, -B, -C and -DRB1 allele in Chinese Han. This comparative study of multilocus POALINs in the HLA class I and II regions of the Chinese Han population shows that POALINs alone or as haplotypes together with the HLA class I and II alleles are informative genetic markers for the identification of HLA class I and II allele and variations, such as crossing over events within the same and/or different populations.  相似文献
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Microminipigs are extremely small‐sized, novel miniature pigs that were recently developed for medical research. The inbred Microminipigs with defined swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) haplotypes are expected to be useful for allo‐ and xenotransplantation studies and also for association analyses between SLA haplotypes and immunological traits. To establish SLA‐defined Microminipig lines, we characterized the polymorphic SLA alleles for three class I (SLA‐1, SLA‐2 and SLA‐3) and two class II (SLA‐DRB1 and SLA‐DQB1) genes of 14 parental Microminipigs using a high‐resolution nucleotide sequence‐based typing method. Eleven class I and II haplotypes, including three recombinant haplotypes, were found in the offspring of the parental Microminipigs. Two class I and class II haplotypes, Hp‐31.0 (SLA‐1*1502–SLA‐3*070102–SLA‐2*1601) and Hp‐0.37 (SLA‐DRB1*0701–SLA‐DQB1*0502), are novel and have not so far been reported in other pig breeds. Crossover regions were defined by the analysis of 22 microsatellite markers within the SLA class III region of three recombinant haplotypes. The SLA allele and haplotype information of Microminipigs in this study will be useful to establish SLA homozygous lines including three recombinants for transplantation and immunological studies.  相似文献
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