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Genetic and biochemical consequences of thymidylate stress   总被引:8,自引:0,他引:8  
We have examined the genetic and biochemical consequences of thymidylate stress in haploid and diploid strains of the simple eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Bakers' yeast). Previously we reported that inhibition of dTMP biosynthesis causes "thymineless death" and is highly recombinagenic, but apparently not mutagenic, at the nuclear level; however, it is mutagenic for mitochondria. Concurrent provision of dTMP abolishes these effects. Conversely, excess dTMP is highly mutagenic for nuclear genes. It is likely that DNA strand breaks are responsible for the recombinagenic effects of thymidylate deprivation; such breaks could be produced by reiterative uracil incorporation and excision in DNA repair patches. In our experiments, thymidylate stress was produced both by starving dTMP auxotrophs for the required nucleotide and also by blocking de novo synthesis of thymidylate by various antimetabolites. We found that the antifolate methotrexate is a potent inducer of mitotic recombination (both gene conversion and mitotic crossing-over). This suggests that the gene amplification associated with methotrexate resistance in mammalian cells could arise, in part, by unequal sister-chromatid exchange induced by thymidylate stress. In addition, several sulfa drugs, which impede de novo folate biosynthesis, also have considerable recombinagenic activity.  相似文献
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Thymine-requiring mutants of Micrococcus radiodurans have been isolated by selection on solid medium containing trimethoprim. Strains requiring either high concentrations of thymine (50 μg/ml) or low concentrations (2 μg/ml) for normal growth were obtained. The Thy mutant requiring low thymine concentrations has been characterized. It was shown to retain the high ultraviolet light (UV) resistance typical of wild-type M. radiodurans, but it was not resistant to thymineless death. Preliminary exposure of the cells to thymineless conditions resulted in enhanced UV sensitivity, and this interaction occurred under conditions where “unbalanced growth” was inhibited by the addition of chloramphenicol. Upon addition of thymine to deprived cells, UV resistance was gradually restored, and this recovery took place in the absence of protein synthesis. A model is proposed to account for the similarity of thymineless death in bacteria whose deoxyribonucleic acid repair efficiencies differ widely.  相似文献
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A rapid procedure for the recovery of Saccharomyces cerevisiae auxotrophs was developed by exploiting the protection of these mutants from thymineless death when a required metabolite was withheld. The method can be used for thymidine 5'-monophosphate-requiring auxotrophs or wild-type strains blocked in de novo synthesis of thymidylate by folate antagonists.  相似文献
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During early meiotic development the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a characteristic nuclear dense body (NDB). It is shown that the NDB can also be induced in vegetatively growing cells through the inhibition of thymidylate synthetase which causes depletion of the dTMP pool and arrests DNA synthesis. The observations on NDBs and recombination levels suggest that thymidylate-stressed cells may activate parts of the meiotic pathway and, conversely, cells on sporulation medium may sense, among other things, reduced thymidylate levels and respond to the several stimuli by entering the meiotic pathway.  相似文献
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Summary High concentrations of deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP) induce mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Strains defective in the RAD6 gene-thought to be involved in error-prone DNA repair-do not show dTMP-induced mutation. We propose a model to explain these findings and suggest that fluxes of thymidine nucleotides may diminish the fidelity of DNA replication.  相似文献
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Summary Mutant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae auxotrophic for deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP) were isolated and characterized. Two distinct classes of auxotrophs were obtained. One class had a simple requirement for dTMP and was analogous to thymine-requiring bacteria. The second class required dTMP, adenine, histidine and methionine and this complex nutritional phenotype was due to defects in folate metabolism. The dTMP-dependent growth of respiratory-competent grande auxotrophs was found to be markedly affected by media composition and carbon source. In the absence of dTMP thymineless death occurred in both mutant classes.  相似文献
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Summary Thymidylate starvation in a yeast mutant auxotrophic for dTMP caused cell death and the induction of mutations in the mitochondrial genome. After 24 h of starvation almost all surviving cells were respiratory deficient petites. In addition, shorter episodes of dTMP starvation induced chloramphenicol and erythromycin resistant mutants, indicating the occurrence of mitochondrial point mutations. Suboptimal concentrations of exogenous thymidylate were also found to induce petites and a decline in cell viability and the magnitude of these effects was acutely dependent upon the dTMP concentration. Cesium chloride gradient analysis of DNA from cells undergoing thymineless incubation revealed a progressive loss of mitochondrial DNA, and a decrease in the molecular weight of nuclear DNA.  相似文献
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