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The product of the abnormal wing discs (awd) gene of Drosophila is 78% identical to the product of the nm23 gene of mammals, which is differentially expressed in certain metastatic tumors. We present evidence that the awd gene codes for a nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDP kinase) and that this Awd/NDP kinase is microtubule associated. Neuroblasts in Drosophila larvae homozygous for a null mutation in the awd gene are arrested in metaphase, indicating that microtubule-associated Awd/NDP kinase plays a critical role in spindle microtubule polymerization.  相似文献
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Familial cylindromatosis is an autosomal dominant predisposition to multiple neoplasms of the skin appendages. The susceptibility gene has previously been mapped to chromosome 16q12-q13 and has features of a recessive oncogene/tumour suppressor gene. We have now evaluated 19 families with this disease by a combination of genetic linkage analysis and loss of heterozygosity in cylindromas from affected individuals. All 15 informative families show linkage to this locus, providing no evidence for genetic heterogeneity. Recombinant mapping has placed the gene in an interval of approximately 1 Mb. There is no evidence, between families, of haplotype sharing that might be indicative of common founder mutations.  相似文献
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We delivered controlled radio frequency energy to the airways of anesthetized, ventilated dogs to examine the effect of this treatment on reducing airway narrowing caused by a known airway constrictor. The airways of 11 dogs were treated with a specially designed bronchial catheter in three of four lung regions. Treatments in each of the three treated lung regions were controlled to a different temperature (55, 65, and 75 degrees C); the untreated lung region served as a control. We measured airway responsiveness to local methacholine chloride (MCh) challenge before and after treatment and examined posttreatment histology to 3 yr. Treatments controlled to 65 degrees C as well as 75 degrees C persistently and significantly reduced airway responsiveness to local MCh challenge (P < or = 0.022). Airway responsiveness (mean percent decrease in airway diameter after MCh challenge) averaged from 6 mo to 3 yr posttreatment was 79 +/- 2.2% in control airways vs. 39 +/- 2.6% (P < or = 0.001) for airways treated at 65 degrees C, and 26 +/- 2.7% (P < or = 0.001) for airways treated at 75 degrees C. Treatment effects were confined to the airway wall and the immediate peribronchial region on histological examination. Airway responsiveness to local MCh challenge was inversely correlated to the extent of altered airway smooth muscle observed in histology (r = -0.54, P < 0.001). We conclude that the temperature-controlled application of radio frequency energy to the airways can reduce airway responsiveness to MCh for at least 3 yr in dogs by reducing airway smooth muscle contractility.  相似文献
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Apolipoprotein[a] polymorphism has been investigated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide (5.37%) gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting using a standardized sample load in four ethnic groups: German, Ghanaian, Chinese, and San (Kalahari Bushmen). A total of 10 different apparent molecular weight (Mr) polymorphs, designated 1 to 10 with increasing Mr, were detected in greater than 99% of all individuals tested (German, 99%; Ghanaian, 99%; Chinese, 100%; San 100%). A null allele is therefore at most an infrequent variant in all populations. Polymorphs 6-10 were common to all four populations, while polymorphs 1-5 appeared to be relatively rare variants not universally detected in each group in the present study. The Chinese had the highest proportion of double-band phenotypes and the observed frequencies were not significantly different from those expected according to simple Mendelian inheritance, whereas the observed apo[a] phenotype distributions of the other three groups did not concur with those expected for Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. The German and Ghanaian groups displayed similar distributions of apo[a] phenotypes while the Chinese and San had significantly higher frequencies of polymorphs 9 and 10. Mean plasma Lp[a] concentrations in Ghanaians (36.2 +/- 31.5 mg/dl) were almost 2-fold greater than in Germans (18.7 +/- 23.1 mg/dl) and ca 1.65-fold greater than in either Chinese (22.9 +/- 18.3 mg/dl) or San (21.1 +/- 19.3 mg/dl). A strong inverse correlation was observed between apo[a] Mr and plasma Lp[a] concentration in Germans but this was much less pronounced in Ghanaians. While the mean plasma Lp[a] levels associated with polymorphs 1-6 were similar in both Germans (43.4 +/- 30.0 mg/dl) and Ghanaians (49.2 +/- 37.6 mg/dl), those Ghanaians with any combination of the polymorphs 9 and 10 had an almost 3-fold greater mean plasma Lp[a] level (20.6 +/- 11.3 mg/dl) than their German counterparts (7.8 +/- 5.7 mg/dl). It is therefore apparent that: 1) differences in apo[a] allele frequencies are not primarily responsible for differences in Lp[a] levels between populations; and 2) the greatest ethnic variation is observed in plasma Lp[a] concentrations associated with the high molecular weight apo[a] polymorphs.  相似文献
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This study investigated the effect of patulin and penicillic acid, two known quorum-sensing inhibitors, and the common biocide ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the biofilm formation and auto-inducer (AI)-2 production of three isolates from dental unit water lines, Klebsiella sp., Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus. Penicillic acid on its own had no effect on the biofilm formation of all isolates, whereas in combination with EDTA, it enhanced biofilm formation significantly in Klebsiella sp. and B. cereus. EDTA at concentrations greater than 10 μM promoted biofilm formation in B. cereus and B. subtilis. Patulin was found to promote biofilm formation in B. cereus up to 25 μM. A significant increase in biofilm formation was observed in B. cereus and B. subtilis at concentrations greater than 10 μM of patulin when combined with EDTA. The Vibrio harveyi BB170 AI-2 bioassay showed a positive response for Klebsiella sp. AI-2 production with a maximum fold induction at the late exponential growth phase. Addition of glucose prolonged the AI-2 production phase considerably. No significant effect of patulin, penicillic acid alone as well as in combination with EDTA was observed on AI-2 production by Klebsiella sp. The findings have important implications for the design of biofilm prevention and eradication strategies. Electronic supplementary material  The online version of this article (doi:) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.  相似文献
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In this study we compared the biodiversity of five waterbody types (ditches, lakes, ponds, rivers and streams) within an agricultural study area in lowland England to assess their relative contribution to the plant and macroinvertebrate species richness and rarity of the region. We used a Geographical Information System (GIS) to compare the catchment areas and landuse composition for each of these waterbody types to assess the feasibility of deintensifying land to levels identified in the literature as acceptable for aquatic biota. Ponds supported the highest number of species and had the highest index of species rarity across the study area. Catchment areas associated with the different waterbody types differed significantly, with rivers having the largest average catchment sizes and ponds the smallest. The important contribution made to regional aquatic biodiversity by small waterbodies and in particular ponds, combined with their characteristically small catchment areas, means that they are amongst the most valuable, and potentially amongst the easiest, of waterbody types to protect. Given the limited area of land that may be available for the protection of aquatic biodiversity in agricultural landscapes, the deintensification of such small catchments (which can be termed microcatchments) could be an important addition to the measures used to protect aquatic biodiversity, enabling ‘pockets’ of high aquatic biodiversity to occur within working agricultural landscapes. Guest editors: R. Céréghino, J. Biggs, B. Oertli & S. Declerck The ecology of European ponds: defining the characteristics of a neglected freshwater habitat  相似文献
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We examined hemopoietic reconstitution during the first 12 months post-transplant in 31 patients given high-dose cyclophosphamide, total body irradiation and an HLA-identical sibling marrow transplant for hematological malignancy. Unexpectedly, we found marrow CFU-gm and marrow CFU-e cells to be denser than normal throughout the first year post-transplant. While functionally adequate neutrophil and platelet counts were achieved in the first six weeks post-transplant, there were defects in hemopoietic progenitor cell function during the first year post-transplant. Although we could detect no influence from acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), chronic GVHD adversely affected the growth of both myeloid and erythroid blood progenitor cells.  相似文献
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