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1.
Primary isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are much less sensitive to neutralization by soluble CD4 (sCD4) and sCD4-immunoglobulin (Ig) chimeras (CD4-IgG) than are HIV-1 strains adapted to growth in cell culture. We demonstrated that there are significant reductions (10- to 30-fold) in the binding of sCD4 and CD4-IgG to intact virions of five primary isolates compared with sCD4-sensitive, cell culture-adapted isolates RF and IIIB. However, soluble envelope glycoproteins (gp120) derived from the primary isolate virions, directly by detergent solubilization or indirectly by recombinant DNA technology, differed in affinity from RF and IIIB gp120 by only one- to threefold. The reduced binding of sCD4 to these primary isolate virions must therefore be a consequence of the tertiary or quaternary structure of the envelope glycoproteins in their native, oligomeric form on the viral surface. In addition, the rate and extent of sCD4-induced gp120 shedding from these primary isolates was lower than that from RF. We suggest that reduced sCD4 binding and increased gp120 retention together account for the relative resistance of these primary isolates to neutralization by sCD4 and CD4-IgG and that virions of different HIV-1 isolates vary both in the mechanism of sCD4 binding and in subsequent conformational changes in their envelope glycoproteins.  相似文献
2.
We have analyzed the binding of soluble CD4 (sCD4) to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virions (isolates IIIB and RF) at 4 and 37 degrees C by using a combination of gel exclusion chromatography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detection systems. The sCD4 binding curve at 37 degrees C indicates that the affinity of the interaction of sCD4 with gp120 on the virion surface is indistinguishable from the affinity of sCD4 for the equivalent concentration of soluble gp120. At 4 degrees C, however, the affinity of sCD4 for virion-bound gp120 but not for soluble gp120 is reduced by about 20-fold. Binding of sCD4 (greater than 0.2 microgram/ml) to virions at 37 degrees C but not 4 degrees C induces the rapid dissociation of a major proportion of gp120 from gp41 on the virion surface. This dissociation requires occupancy by sCD4 of multiple (probably two) binding sites on a gp120-gp41 oligomer. At 37 degrees C there are two components to the neutralizing action of sCD4 on HIV-1; reversible, competitive inhibition at low sCD4 concentrations (less than 0.2 microgram/ml) and essentially irreversible inhibition due to gp120 loss at higher sCD4 concentrations. At 4 degrees C, sCD4 neutralizes HIV infectivity by competitive inhibition alone. These findings may have implications for the HIV-CD4+ cell binding and fusion reactions and the mechanism by which sCD4 blocks infectivity.  相似文献
3.
A human monoclonal antibody designated 15e is reactive with the envelope glycoprotein (gp120) of multiple isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Antibody 15e also neutralizes HIV-1 with broad specificity and blocks gp120 binding to CD4. Characterization of the 15e epitope shows that it is conformation dependent and is distinct from previously recognized functional domains of gp120, suggesting that this epitope represents a novel site important for HIV-1 neutralization and CD4 binding. These findings have implications for the development of a vaccine for AIDS.  相似文献
4.
Several parameters which may affect the infectivity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in tissue culture were analyzed. In particular, we used gel exclusion chromatography to investigate how the loss of the surface glycoprotein gp120 from virions of the HTLV-IIIB (IIIB), HTLV-IIIRF (RF), and SF-2 isolates modulates infectivity. In IIIB and RF cultures, a high proportion of the total gp120 was virion bound initially but was gradually lost from the virions over time. In contrast, most of the gp120 (and p24) in SF-2-infected cultures was soluble and the few particles present had a fivefold-lower level of virus-bound gp120. However, this reduced level of virion-bound gp120 was more resistant to shedding. Loss of a major proportion of gp120 from IIIB and RF virions resulted in reduced infectivities, and in addition, the resulting accumulation of soluble gp120 in the cultures could competitively inhibit viral infection, especially with SF-2. Increased shedding of virion gp120 also affected the neutralization of IIIB and RF particles. However, the high sensitivity to human serum neutralization characteristic of SF-2 was unaffected by soluble gp120 in cultures, suggesting that the epitopes responsible are not present on soluble gp120.  相似文献
5.
A number of linear and conformation-dependent neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been mapped to the first and second variable (V1 and V2) domains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120. The majority of these MAbs are as effective at neutralizing HIV-1 infectivity as MAbs to the V3 domain and the CD4 binding site. The linear MAbs bind to amino acid residues 162 to 171, and changes at residues 183/184 (PI/SG) and 191/192/193 (YSL/GSS) within the V2 domain abrogate the binding of the two conformation-dependent MAbs, 11/68b and CRA-4, respectively. Surprisingly, a change at residue 435 (Y/H or Y/S), in a region of gp120 near the CD4 binding site (M. Kowalski, J. Potz, L. Basiripour, T. Dorfman, W. C. Goh, E. Terwilliger, A. Dayton, C. Rosen, W. Haseltine, and J. Sodroski, Science 237:1351-1355, 1987; L. A. Lasky, G. M. Nakamura, D. H. Smith, C. Fennie, C. Shimasaki, E. Patzer, P. Berman, T. Gregory, and D. Capon, Cell 50:975-985, 1987; and U. Olshevsky, E. Helseth, C. Furman, J. Li, W. Haseltine, and J. Sodroski, J. Virol. 64:5701-5707, 1990), abrogated gp120 recognition by both of the conformation-dependent MAbs. However, both MAbs 11/68b and CRA-4 were able to bind to HIV-1 V1V2 chimeric fusion proteins expressing the V1V2 domains in the absence of C4, suggesting that residues in C4 are not components of the epitopes but that amino acid changes in C4 may affect the structure of the V1V2 domains. This is consistent with the ability of soluble CD4 to block 11/68b and CRA-4 binding to both native cell surface-expressed gp120 and recombinant gp120 and suggests that the binding of the neutralizing MAbs to the virus occurs prior to receptor interaction. Since the reciprocal inhibition, i.e., antibody inhibition of CD4-gp120 binding, was not observed, the mechanism of neutralization is probably not a blockade of virus-receptor interaction. Finally, we demonstrate that linear sequences from the V2 region are immunogenic in HIV-1-infected individuals, suggesting that the primary neutralizing response may be directed to both V2 and V3 epitopes.  相似文献
6.
We have identified six monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) mapping to both linear and conformation-dependent epitopes within the V2 region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 clone HXB10. Three of the MAbs (12b, 66c, and 66a) were able to neutralize the molecular clones HXB10 and HXB2, with titers in the range of 9.5 to 20.0 micrograms/ml. MAbs mapping to the crown of the V2 loop (12b, 60b, and 74) bound poorly to cell surface-expressed oligomeric gp120, suggesting an explanation for the poor or negligible neutralizing activity of MAbs to this region. In contrast, MAbs 12b and 60b demonstrated good reactivity with recombinant gp120 in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay format, suggesting differential epitope exposure between the recombinant and native forms of gp120. Cross-competition analysis of these MAbs and additional V1V2 MAbs for gp120 binding enabled us to assign the MAbs to six groups (A to F). Selection of neutralization escape mutants with MAbs 10/76b and 11/68b, belonging to nonoverlapping competition groups, identified amino acid changes at residues 165 (I to T) and 185 (D to N), respectively. Interestingly, these escape variants remained sensitive to neutralization by the nonselecting V2 MAbs. All MAbs demonstrated good recognition of IIIB viral gp120 yet failed to neutralize nonclonal stocks of IIIB. In addition, MAbs 12b and 62c bound MN and RF viral gp120, respectively, yet failed to neutralize the respective isolates. Cloning and expression of a library of gp120 and V1V2 fragments from IIIB-, MN-, and RF-infected H9 cultures identified a number of polymorphic sites, resulting in antigenic variation and subsequent loss of V2 MAb recognition. In contrast, the V3 region from the clones of the same isolates showed no amino acid changes, suggesting that the V2 region is polymorphic in long-term-passaged laboratory isolates and may account for the reduced antibody recognition observed.  相似文献
7.
We have selected an HXB2 variant which can replicate in the presence of a neutralizing human serum. Sequencing of the gp120 region of the env gene from the variant and parental viruses identified a single amino acid substitution in the third conserved region of gp120 at residue 375 (AGT-->AAT, Ser-->Asn; designated 375 S/N). The escape mutant was found to be resistant to neutralization by soluble CD4 (sCD4) and four monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), 39.13g, 1.5e, G13, and 448, binding to epitopes overlapping that of the CD4 binding site (CD4 b.s.). Introduction of the 375 S/N mutation into HXB2 by site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that this mutation is responsible for the neutralization-resistant phenotype. Both sCD4 and three of the CD4 b.s. MAbs (39.13g, 1.5e, and G13) demonstrated reduced binding to the native 375 S/N mutant gp120. The ability to select for an escape variant resistant to multiple independent CD4 b.s. MAbs by a human serum confirms the reports that antibodies to the discontinuous CD4 b.s. are a major component of the group-specific neutralizing activity in human sera.  相似文献
8.
Sequential mutations were introduced into the V2 region of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 HXB2, affecting the length, charge, and number of potential glycosylation sites. The insertions had no effect on cytopathicity or on the ability of virus to replicate in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and established T-cell lines. However, deletion of amino acids 186 to 188, encoding a conserved glycosylation site, resulted in a nonviable virus, suggesting a minimal length requirement of 40 amino acids for a functional V2 loop. However, all amino acid insertions affected the sensitivity of the variants to neutralization by soluble CD4 and monoclonal antibodies specific for epitopes in the V3 and CD4 binding site regions. Furthermore, these mutant viruses showed resistance to neutralization by HIV-positive human sera. Soluble gp120 mutant glycoproteins showed increased affinities for soluble CD4 and monoclonal antibodies specific for a number of epitopes overlapping the CD4 binding site, confirming that length increases in V2 affect exposure of the CD4 binding site. In summary, these data demonstrate that differences in V2 length modulate immunoreactivity of the envelope glycoprotein and support an association between the V2 and CD4 binding site regions.  相似文献
9.
Inoculation of New World primates with the human immunodeficiency virus   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
The susceptibility of common marmosets and cotton-top tamarins to infection by HIV-2 in vivo was tested. One year and 19 months, respectively, post-inoculation, sera taken from three of four animals from each species are reactive for HIV-2 antibodies and HIV-specific nucleotide sequences were demonstrated in short-term cultures of PBL from two cotton-top tamarins. The animals remain in good health.  相似文献
10.
We monitored the primary humoral response to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection and showed that, in addition to antibodies to p24 and gp41, antigens which form the basis of most diagnostic assays, the response included a significant antibody response directed to the gp120 region of the infecting viral quasispecies. When tested in a recombinant virus neutralization assay, these antibodies were capable of inhibiting viral growth. We found the primary viral quasispecies to solely utilize the CCR-5 chemokine receptor; however, recombinant viruses differed in their cytopathology and in their sensitivity to β-chemokine inhibition of viral growth. Sequence analysis of the gp120 open reading frames showed that amino acid changes in the C1 (D→G at position 62) and C4 (V→A at position 430) regions accounted for the phenotypic differences. These data demonstrate that early in infection, polymorphism exists in envelope glycoprotein coreceptor interactions and imply that therapeutic strategies targeted at this step in the viral life cycle may lead to rapid resistance.  相似文献
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