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Background

Excessive melanin production and accumulation are characteristics of a large number of skin diseases, including melasma, and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. During our on-going search for new agents with an inhibitory effect on tyrosinase, we synthesized a new type of tyrosinase inhibitor, 4-(thiazolidin-2-yl)benzene-1,2-diol (MHY-794), which directly inhibits mushroom tyrosinase.

Methods

The inhibitory effect of MHY-794 on tyrosinase activity and nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity was evaluated in cell free system. Additional experiments were performed using B16F10 melanoma cells to demonstrate the effects of MHY-794 in vitro. HRM2 hairless mice were used to evaluate anti-melanogenic effects of MHY-794 in vivo.

Results

MHY-794 effectively inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity in cell free system. In silico docking simulation also supported the inhibitory effects of MHY-794 on mushroom tyrosinase. MHY-794 also proved to be effective at scavenging nitric oxide (NO), which serves as an important modulator in the melanogenesis signaling pathway. In addition, MHY-794 effectively inhibited SNP (NO donor)-induced melanogenesis by directly inhibiting tyrosinase and diminishing NO-mediated melanogenesis signaling in B16 melanoma cells. The anti-melanogenic effects of MHY-794 were further confirmed in HRM2 hairless mice. Ultraviolet light (UV) significantly up-regulated NO-mediated melanogenesis signaling in HRM2 hairless mice, but MHY-794 effectively inhibited both melanogenesis and diminished UV-induced NO-signaling.

Conclusions

Our results indicate that MHY-794 is highly effective at inhibiting NO-mediated melanogenesis in vitro and in vivo by direct NO scavenging and directly inhibiting tyrosinase activity, and suggest that MHY-794 be considered a new developmental candidate for the treatment of hyper-pigmentation disorders.

General significance

MHY-794, which showed great efficacy on NO-mediated melanogenesis by direct NO scavenging as well as direct inhibition of tyrosinase catalytic activity, might be utilized for the development of a new candidate for treatment of the hyper-pigmentation disorders.  相似文献
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YJ Choi  YJ Park  JY Park  HO Jeong  DH Kim  YM Ha  JM Kim  YM Song  HS Heo  BP Yu  P Chun  HR Moon  HY Chung 《PloS one》2012,7(8):e43418
Autophagy is a major degradative process responsible for the disposal of cytoplasmic proteins and dysfunctional organelles via the lysosomal pathway. During the autophagic process, cells form double-membraned vesicles called autophagosomes that sequester disposable materials in the cytoplasm and finally fuse with lysosomes. In the present study, we investigated the inhibition of autophagy by a synthesized compound, MHY1485, in a culture system by using Ac2F rat hepatocytes. Autophagic flux was measured to evaluate the autophagic activity. Autophagosomes were visualized in Ac2F cells transfected with AdGFP-LC3 by live-cell confocal microscopy. In addition, activity of mTOR, a major regulatory protein of autophagy, was assessed by western blot and docking simulation using AutoDock 4.2. In the result, treatment with MHY1485 suppressed the basal autophagic flux, and this inhibitory effect was clearly confirmed in cells under starvation, a strong physiological inducer of autophagy. The levels of p62 and beclin-1 did not show significant change after treatment with MHY1485. Decreased co-localization of autophagosomes and lysosomes in confocal microscopic images revealed the inhibitory effect of MHY1485 on lysosomal fusion during starvation-induced autophagy. These effects of MHY1485 led to the accumulation of LC3II and enlargement of the autophagosomes in a dose- and time- dependent manner. Furthermore, MHY1485 induced mTOR activation and correspondingly showed a higher docking score than PP242, a well-known ATP-competitive mTOR inhibitor, in docking simulation. In conclusion, MHY1485 has an inhibitory effect on the autophagic process by inhibition of fusion between autophagosomes and lysosomes leading to the accumulation of LC3II protein and enlarged autophagosomes. MHY1485 also induces mTOR activity, providing a possibility for another regulatory mechanism of autophagy by the MHY compound. The significance of this study is the finding of a novel inhibitor of autophagy with an mTOR activating effect.  相似文献
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The NAD+-dependent deacetylase SIRT1, which is associated with the improvement of metabolic syndromes, such as type 2 diabetes, is a well-known longevity-related gene. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have shown the known protective effects of SIRT1 activators, such as resveratrol and SRT1720, on diabetes- or obesity-induced fatty liver and insulin resistance. Here, we newly synthesized 18 benzoxazole hydrochloride derivatives based on the structure of resveratrol and SRT1720. We performed an in vitro SIRT1 activity assay to identify the strongest SIRT1 activator. The assay confirmed MHY2233 to be the strongest SIRT1 activator (1.5-fold more potent than resveratrol), and docking simulation showed that the binding affinity of MHY2233 was higher than that of resveratrol and SRT1720. To investigate its beneficial effects, db/db mice were orally administered MHY2233 for 1 month, and various metabolic parameters were assessed in the serum and liver tissues. MHY2233 markedly ameliorated insulin signaling without affecting body weight in db/db mice. In particular, the mRNA expression of lipogenic genes, such as acetyl CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein, which increased in db/db mice, decreased following oral treatment with MHY2233.In conclusion, the novel SIRT1 activator MHY2233 reduced lipid accumulation and improved insulin resistance. This finding may contribute toward therapeutic approaches for fatty liver disease and glucose tolerance.  相似文献
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Thirteen (Z)-4-(substituted benzylidene)-3-phenylisoxazol-5(4H)-ones were designed to confirm the geometric effect of the double bond of the β-phenyl-α, β-unsaturated carbonyl scaffold on tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Compounds 1a1m, which all possessed the (Z)-β-phenyl-α, β-unsaturated carbonyl scaffold, were synthesized using a tandem reaction consisting of an isoxazolone ring formation and a Knoevenagel condensation, and three starting materials, ethyl benzoylacetate, hydroxylamine and benzaldehydes. Some of the compounds showed inhibitory activity against mushroom tyrosinase as potent as compounds containing the “(E)”-β-phenyl-α, β-unsaturated carbonyl scaffold. Compounds 1c and 1m showed greater inhibitory activity than kojic acid: IC50 = 32.08 ± 2.25 μM for 1c; IC50 = 14.62 ± 1.38 μM for 1m; and IC50 = 37.86 ± 2.21 μM for kojic acid. A kinetic study indicated that 1m inhibited tyrosinase in a competitive manner and that it probably binds to the enzyme’s active site. In silico docking simulation supported binding of 1m (−7.6 kcal/mol) to the active site of tyrosinase with stronger affinity than kojic acid (−5.7 kcal/mol). Similar results were obtained using cell-based assays, and in B16F10 cells, compound 1m dose-dependently inhibited tyrosinase activity and melanogenesis. These results indicate the anti-melanogenic effect of compound 1m is due to the inhibition of tyrosinase and (Z)-isomer of the β-phenyl-α, β-unsaturated carbonyl scaffold can, like its congener the (E)-isomer, act as an excellent scaffold for tyrosinase inhibition.  相似文献
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Pigmentation disorders are attributed to excessive melanin which can be produced by tyrosinase. Therefore, tyrosinase is supposed to be a vital target for the treatment of disorders associated with overpigmentation. Based on our previous findings that an (E)-β-phenyl-α,β-unsaturated carbonyl scaffold can play a key role in the inhibition of tyrosinase activity, and the fact that cinnamic acid is a safe natural substance with a scaffolded structure, it was speculated that appropriate cinnamic acid derivatives may exhibit potent tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Thus, ten cinnamamides were designed, and synthesized by using a Horner-Emmons olefination as the key step. Cinnamamides 4 (93.72% inhibition), 9 (78.97% inhibition), and 10 (59.09% inhibition) with either a 2,4-dihydroxyphenyl, or 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl substituent showed much higher mushroom tyrosinase inhibition at 25 µM than kojic acid (18.81% inhibition), used as a positive control. Especially, the two cinnamamides 4 and 9 having a 2,4-dihydroxyphenyl group showed the strongest inhibition. Docking simulation with tyrosinase revealed that these three cinnamamides, 4, 9, and 10, bind to the active site of tyrosinase more strongly than kojic acid. Cell-based experiments carried out using B16F10 murine skin melanoma cells demonstrated that all three cinnamamides effectively inhibited cellular tyrosinase activity and melanin production in the cells without cytotoxicity. There was a close correlation between cellular tyrosinase activity and melanin content, indicating that the inhibitory effect of the three cinnamamides on melanin production is mainly attributed to their capability for cellular tyrosinase inhibition. These results imply that cinnamamides having the (E)-β-phenyl-α,β-unsaturated carbonyl scaffolds are promising candidates for skin-lighting agents.  相似文献
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Viriditoxin is a fungal secondary metabolite of the fungus Paecilomyces variotii derived from the inner tissues of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai. Viriditoxin exhibits antibacterial activity against Streptococcus iniae and Streptococcus parauberis, which are major pathogens of aqua cultured fish. Viriditoxin induced abnormal cell morphologies in the fish pathogens S. iniae and S. parauberis, presumably by inhibiting FtsZ polymerization as was previously observed in Escherichia coli. Synthetic analogues of viriditoxin, designed based on docking simulation results to FtsZ of Staphylococcus aureus, were prepared and compared with viriditoxin for antibacterial activity. Reconstitution of free hydroxyl or carboxyl groups of the methoxyl or methyl ester groups of viriditoxin led to significant reduction of antibacterial activity, implying that the natural molecule is optimized for antibacterial activity to deter bacteria potentially harmful to Paecilomyces.  相似文献
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