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Pretreatment of cellulose with ionic liquids (ILs) can improve the efficiency of the hydrolysis by increasing the surface area of the substrates accessible to solvents and cellulases. However, the IL methods are facing challenges to separate the hydrolyzed sugar products as well as the renewable ILs from the complex hydrolysis mixtures. In this study, an alumina column chromatography (ACC) method was developed for the separation of hydrophilic IL N-methyl-N-methylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate ([Mmim][DMP]) and glucose, which was the main ingredient of the monosaccharide hydrolyzate. The processing parameters involved in ACC separation were investigated in detail. Our results showed that the recovery yields of [Mmim][DMP] and glucose can reach up to 93.38% and 90.14%, respectively, under the optimized parameters: the sampling ratio of 1:20 between the applied sample volume and the bed volume of the column; a gradient elution using methanol (100%, 150 ml) and then water (170 ml) as eluents with 1 ml/min flow rate. The recovered [Mmim][DMP] showed qualified property and was effective in a new hydrolysis reaction. In addition, scale-up ACC separations were successfully done with satisfied separation performance. The results indicated that the ACC is one of the available methods for the separation of ILs and monosaccharides from the hydrolysis mixtures.  相似文献
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Confronted with the gradual and inescapable exhaustion of the earth’s fossil energy resources, the bio-based process to produce platform chemicals from renewable carbohydrates is attracting growing interest. Escherichia coli has been chosen as a workhouse for the production of many valuable chemicals due to its clear genetic background, convenient to be genetically modified and good growth properties with low nutrient requirements. Rational strain development of E. coli achieved by metabolic engineering strategies has provided new processes for efficiently biotechnological production of various high-value chemical building blocks. Compared to previous reviews, this review focuses on recent advances in metabolic engineering of the industrial model bacteria E. coli that lead to efficient recombinant biocatalysts for the production of high-value organic acids like succinic acid, lactic acid, 3-hydroxypropanoic acid and glucaric acid as well as alcohols like 1,3-propanediol, xylitol, mannitol, and glycerol with the discussion of the future research in this area. Besides, this review also discusses several platform chemicals, including fumaric acid, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, sorbitol, itaconic acid, and 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid, which have not been produced by E. coli until now.  相似文献
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Compared with the better-studied canonical amino acids, the distribution, metabolism and functions of natural non-canonical amino acids remain relatively obscure. Natural non-canonical amino acids have been mainly discovered in plants as secondary metabolites that perform diversified physiological functions. Due to their specific characteristics, a broader range of natural and artificial non-canonical amino acids have recently been applied in the development of functional materials and pharmaceutical products. With the rapid development of advanced methods in biotechnology, non-canonical amino acids can be incorporated into peptides, proteins and enzymes to improve the function and performance relative to their natural counterparts. Therefore, biotechnological application of non-canonical amino acids in artificial bio-macromolecules follows the central goal of synthetic biology to: create novel life forms and functions. However, many of the non-canonical amino acids are synthesized via chemo- or semi-synthetic methods, and few non-canonical amino acids can be synthesized using natural in vivo pathways. Therefore, further research is needed to clarify the metabolic pathways and key enzymes of the non-canonical amino acids. This will lead to the discovery of more candidate non-canonical amino acids, especially for those that are derived from microorganisms and are naturally bio-compatible with chassis strains for in vivo biosynthesis. In this review, we summarize representative natural and artificial non-canonical amino acids, their known information regarding associated metabolic pathways, their characteristics and their practical applications. Moreover, this review summarizes current barriers in developing in vivo pathways for the synthesis of non-canonical amino acids, as well as other considerations, future trends and potential applications of non-canonical amino acids in advanced biotechnology.  相似文献
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王潇  谢丽坤  武慧斌  邹洪涛  宋正国 《生态学报》2015,35(17):5728-5737
采用盆栽试验,利用开顶式气室(Open Top Chamber,OTC)研究了5个籼稻品种在高、低铜镉复合污染土壤上,CO2浓度升高对水稻生长及吸收Cu、Cd和矿质元素Fe、Zn、Ca、Mn的影响,并对稻米中Cd的安全性进行了评价,了解Cd污染对人类健康的潜在风险。结果表明:CO2浓度升高,显著降低了低复合污染土壤上稻米的生物量,而显著增加了高复合污染土壤上的稻米生物量。CO2浓度升高降低了低污染土壤上稻米Cu含量,降低幅度为4.75%-24.49%,增加了高污染土壤上稻米Cu含量,增加幅度为6.60%-40.37%;而稻米Cu的总吸收量在低、高复合污染土壤上均是降低的。低、高复合污染土壤上,CO2浓度升高显著降低了三香优974稻米的Cd含量和吸收量;增加了其他4个品种稻米Cd含量和吸收量。CO2浓度升高对不同品种稻米中Fe、Zn、Ca、Mn含量影响存在显著差异。CO2浓度正常、升高条件下,两种污染土壤上金优463稻米中Cd含量超过食品卫生标准(Cd≤0.2 mg/kg),三香优974在正常CO2浓度条件下其稻米Cd含量超过食品卫生标准。在低、高复合污染土壤上,金优463和三香优974稻米中Cd的THQ值均大于1,说明对人体暴露接触的潜在风险比较严重。CO2浓度升高显著降低了三香优974稻米中Cd对人体暴露接触的潜在风险,而对其他4个水稻品种稻米Cd的THQ值影响不明显。  相似文献
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Erythritol, a well-known natural sweetener, is mainly produced by microbial fermentation. Various metal ions (Al3+, Cu2+, Mn2+, and Ni2+) were added to the culture medium of Trichosporonoides oedocephalis ATCC 16958 at 30 mg/L in shake flask cultures. Compared with controls, Cu2+ increased the erythritol content by 86% and decreased the glycerol by-product by 31%. After 48 hr of shake flask culture, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that expression levels of erythrose reductase (ER) in the presence of 30 mg/L CuSO4 · 5H2O were higher than those obtained after treatment with other examined metal ions. Furthermore, after 108 hr of batch culture in a 5-L bioreactor, supplementation with 30 mg/L of CuSO4 · 5H2O increased the specific erythritol content by 27%. Further studies demonstrated that ER activity under 30 mg/L CuSO4 · 5H2O supplementation in a fermentor was overtly increased compared with the control after 60 hr, while glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was clearly reduced in most of the fermentation process. Furthermore, the NADPH/NADP ratio was slightly lower in T. oedocephalis cells treated with Cu2+ compared with control cells. These results provide further insights into Cu2+ effects on erythritol biosynthesis in T. oedocephalis and should improve the industrial production of erythritol by biological processes.  相似文献
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Spider dragline silk is a remarkably strong fiber with impressive mechanical properties, which were thought to result from the specific structures of the underlying proteins and their molecular size. In this study, silk protein 11R26 from the dragline silk protein of Nephila clavipes was used to analyze the potential effects of the special amino acids on the function of 11R26. Three protein derivatives, ZF4, ZF5, and ZF6, were obtained by site-directed mutagenesis, based on the sequence of 11R26, and among these derivatives, serine was replaced with cysteine, isoleucine, and arginine, respectively. After these were expressed and purified, the mechanical performance of the fibers derived from the four proteins was tested. Both hardness and average elastic modulus of ZF4 fiber increased 2.2 times compared with those of 11R26. The number of disulfide bonds in ZF4 protein was 4.67 times that of 11R26, which implied that disulfide bonds outside the poly-Ala region affect the mechanical properties of spider silk more efficiently. The results indicated that the mechanical performances of spider silk proteins with small molecular size can be enhanced by modification of the amino acids residues. Our research not only has shown the feasibility of large-scale production of spider silk proteins but also provides valuable information for protein rational design.  相似文献
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