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排序方式: 共有154条查询结果,搜索用时 34 毫秒
1.
肥胖的研究进展   总被引:54,自引:0,他引:54  
肥胖已经成为一种社会现象,其发病过程复杂,危害严重,近年来的研究表明,肥胖是一种由食欲和能量调节紊乱引起的疾病,与遗传、环境、膳食结构等多种因素有关,其中基因是主要的决定因素,肥胖与Ⅱ型糖尿病、心血管疾病、某些肿瘤等有明确的关系。目前对肥胖的治疗尚处于探索时期,1994年发现的苗条素(leptin)仍然是争论的一大焦点。本文综述介绍了肥胖的流行、病因、危害与治疗,并对苗条素进行了比较详细的介绍,以帮助读者了解肥胖的概貌、基础研究进展以及部分临床问题。  相似文献
2.
农杆菌介导的玉米遗传转化   总被引:51,自引:0,他引:51  
Several maize inbreds were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA101 (pGIH). Transgenic maize plants were obtained. Frequency of transformation of maize inbred Suyu No. 1 can reach 8.1%. Results of PCR and Southern blot analysis proved that T-DNA was stably integrated into the genome of maize. Staining with X-gluc confirmed the expression of GUS gene in maize cells. The band amplified by inverse PCR showed that the copy number of transgene in three transformants was single. After long term of subculture, some hygromycin resistant calli lost their regeneration ability. Although Southern blot probed the integration of gusA gene in their genome, GUS activity cannot be detected in those calli. Southern blot analysis of HpaII digest DNA showed that transgenic gusA gene was highly methylated.  相似文献
3.
We bred a microbial community capable of degrading rice straw with high efficiency. The microbial community degraded more than 60% of rice straw within 4 days at 50 °C. The high stability of the community's degradation ability was demonstrated by its tolerance of being subcultured several times in medium with/without cellulosic material, being heated to 95 °C, and freezing at –80 °C. The community degraded both nonsterilized and sterilized substrate; and its degradation ability was not affected by pH changes in the medium (initial pH 5–9). PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses based on 16S rDNA fragments showed that the community structure remained constant after multiple subcultures extending over 2 years. DNA sequence analyses of DGGE bands indicated the coexistence of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in the community. Electronic Publication  相似文献
4.
Lack of disease in long-term nonprogressors with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection was strongly associated with very low copy numbers of HIV-1 DNA and RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma and the presence of high levels of anti-HIV-1 CD8+ memory cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for Gag, Pol, and Env, compared with levels present in intermediate and advanced progressors. CD8+ memory cytotoxic T lymphocytes may have an important role in controlling HIV-1 replication and preventing disease in long-term nonprogressors.  相似文献
5.
肥胖与神经调节   总被引:28,自引:0,他引:28  
机体的能量获取和能量消耗,在一定时期内,是处于一种相对平衡的状态;获取的能量等于消耗的能量,在这一调节中,神经系统起有重要的作用,如果获取的能量(进食)大于消耗的能量,将产生肥胖,由于很多疾病与肥胖的产生有密切的关系,因此,对能量平衡调节的研究越来越受到重视。本文简要总结了近年来这方面的研究进展,内容包括:(1)饱感的产生与进食的终止;(2)机体脂肪储存信号与进食的调节;(3)与进食有关的中枢;(4)下丘脑中传递与进食有关信息的一级和二级神经元;(5)与临床的关系。  相似文献
6.
Polypeptides from flagella or axonemes of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were analyzed by labeling cellular proteins by prolonged growth on 35S- containing media and using one- and two-dimensional electrophoretic techniques which can resolve greater than 170 axonemal components. By this approach, a paralyzed mutant that lacks axonemal radial spokes, pf14, has been shown to lack 17 polypeptides in the molecular weight range of 20,000 to 124,000 and in the isoelectric point range of 4.8- 7.1. Five of those polypeptides are also missing in the mutant pf-1 which lacks only radial spokeheads. The identification of the 17 polypeptides missing in pf-14 as components of radial spoke structures and the localization of the polypeptides lacking in pf-1 within the spokehead, are supported by experiments of chemical dissection of wild- type axonemes. Extraction procedures that solubilize outer and inner dynein arms preserve the structure of the radial spokes along with the 17 polypeptides in question. Six radial spoke polypeptides are solubilized in conditions that cause disassembly of radial spokeheads from the stalks and those components include the five polypeptides missing in pf-1. No Ca++- or Mg++-activated ATPase activities were found to be associated with solubilized preparations of wild-type radial spokeheads. In vivo pulse 32P incorporation experiments provide evidence that greater than 80 axonemal components are labeled by 32P and that five of the radial spoke stalk polypeptides are modified to different extents.  相似文献
7.
Smac/DIABLO is a mitochondrial protein that is released along with cytochrome c during apoptosis and promotes cytochrome c-dependent caspase activation by neutralizing inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). We provide evidence that Smac/DIABLO functions at the levels of both the Apaf-1-caspase-9 apoptosome and effector caspases. The N terminus of Smac/DIABLO is absolutely required for its ability to interact with the baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR3) of XIAP and to promote cytochrome c-dependent caspase activation. However, it is less critical for its ability to interact with BIR1/BIR2 of XIAP and to promote the activity of the effector caspases. Consistent with the ability of Smac/DIABLO to function at the level of the effector caspases, expression of a cytosolic Smac/DIABLO in Type II cells allowed TRAIL to bypass Bcl-xL inhibition of death receptor-induced apoptosis. Combined, these data suggest that Smac/DIABLO plays a critical role in neutralizing IAP inhibition of the effector caspases in the death receptor pathway of Type II cells.  相似文献
8.
B Huang  Z Ramanis  D J Luck 《Cell》1982,28(1):115-124
Reversion analysis of flagellar-motility mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii yields an unusual class of intergenic suppressor mutations that restore flagellar activity to paralyzed radial-spoke or central-pair mutants without altering the structural or molecular defects associated with the original mutations. Four suppressors representing independent genetic loci were studied in detail. Two of the mutations, suppf1 and suppf2, restore flagellar motility to either radial-spoke or central-pair mutants of different genes. The mutants suppf3 and suppf 4 suppress flagellar paralysis associated only with mutants defective for the radial spokes. Analyses of the axonemal polypeptides of suppf1, suppf3 and suppf4 mutants indicate that the mutations restore flagellar activity to paralyzed radial-spoke or central-pair mutants by altering other components of the flagellar axoneme. suppf1 shows an altered electrophoretic migration for a 325,000 molecular weight polypeptide known to be a subunit of an outer-arm dynein. suppf3 and suppf4 are missing different axonemal polypeptides with molecular weights of 60,000 (in the case of suppf3), and 40,000 and 29,000 (in the case of suppf4). Genetic evidence has been obtained indicating that the polypeptides affected in suppf3 and suppf4 are components of a newly identified functional and/or structural compartment of the flagellar axoneme. The suppressor mutations described here reveal the operation of a control mechanism that inhibits the operations of flagellar movements in the presence of radial-spoke or central-pair defects. Suppressor mutations release the inhibition. The molecular defects of suppf1, suppf3 and suppf4 provide evidence that the inhibitory mechanism can be interrupted at two different levels of axonemal function.  相似文献
9.
硒酶及硒化合物生理功能研究的新进展   总被引:17,自引:0,他引:17  
硒是动物必需的微量元素,硒半胱氨酸是硒蛋白的组份并构成硒酶的活性中心,硒蛋白特别是硒酶是硒的主要功能形式,研究发现,硒半胱氨酸是参入到蛋白质分子中的第21种氨基酸,硒是唯一受基因调控的微量元素,最新研究表明,硒及其化合物还具有阻断某些炎症介质的生理活性,抑制蛋白激酶C,激活促分裂原活化蛋白激酶和S6核糖体蛋白激酶,免疫调节及与其它元素和维生素相互作用等多种生理功能,提示硒在人类健康中的作用及其机制比我们过去所预计的更为复杂。  相似文献
10.
Ango F  di Cristo G  Higashiyama H  Bennett V  Wu P  Huang ZJ 《Cell》2004,119(2):257-272
Distinct classes of GABAergic synapses are segregated into subcellular domains (i.e., dendrite, soma, and axon initial segment-AIS), thereby differentially regulating the input, integration, and output of principal neurons. In cerebellum, for example, basket interneurons make exquisitely precise "pinceau synapses" on AIS of Purkinje neurons, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Using BAC transgenic reporter mice, we found that basket axons always contacted Purkinje soma before innervating AIS. This synapse targeting process followed the establishment of a subcellular gradient of neurofascin186 (NF186), an L1 family immunoglobulin cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM), along the Purkinje AIS-soma axis. This gradient was dependent on ankyrinG, an AIS-restricted membrane adaptor protein that recruits NF186. In the absence of neurofascin gradient, basket axons lost directional growth along Purkinje neurons and precisely followed NF186 to ectopic locations. Disruption of NF186-ankyrinG interactions at AIS reduced pinceau synapse formation. These results implicate ankyrin-based localization of L1CAMs in subcellular organization of GABAergic synapses.  相似文献
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