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The role of the X chromosome in mammalian extra embryonic development   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Accumulating evidence points to the importance of the X chromosome for trophoblast development. In rodents, the extraembryonic cell lineage differs from somatic tissues in that X chromosome inactivation is imprinted, preferentially silencing the paternal X chromosome. As a consequence, trophoblast development is extremely susceptible to deviations from normal X inactivation and is impaired in situations of increased and reduced X-linked gene dosage. Mouse mutants have also shown that maintenance of X chromosome silencing in extraembryonic tissues requires a special set of heterochromatin proteins. Moreover, the X chromosome has been implicated in causing several malformations of the placenta. The observed importance of the X chromosome for placental development can be explained by the presence of many trophoblast-expressed genes, especially in the proximal and central regions. Given that the placenta represents a postzygotic barrier to reproduction, evolutionary constraints may be responsible for the presence of placental genes on the X chromosome that are often co-expressed in brain and testis.  相似文献
2.
Formation of intracellular protein complexes is often mediated by Src homology 3 domain-containing proteins interacting with proline-rich target sequences on other proteins. TheSh3d2cgene or its rat/human orthologs have been implicated in synaptic vesicle recycling due to interaction with dynamin I and synaptojanin in nerve terminals. In a yeast two-hybrid system, association with a huntingtin fragment containing an elongated stretch of polyglutamines was observed recently. By genetic mapping and fluorescencein situhybridization we demonstrate the localization ofSh3d2con mouse chromosome 7. A processed pseudogene ofSh3d2c, Sh3d2c-ps1,was identified and mapped to mouse chromosome 2. Using RNAin situhybridization, we show thatSh3d2cis transcribed in various regions of the brain. The striatum, hippocampus, cortex, basal hypothalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum are the most prominent sites of expression. Because huntingtin andSh3d2care coexpressed in most regions of the brain, it can be speculated that there is a link between the association of huntingtin/Sh3d2c and the pathogenesis of Huntington disease.  相似文献
3.
Recent technological advances in genetic manipulation and expression profiling offer excellent opportunities to elucidate the molecular mechanisms controlling developmental processes during embryogenesis. Thus, this revolution also strongly benefits studies of the molecular genetics of placental development. Here we review the findings of several expression profiling analyses in extraembryonic tissues and assess how this work can contribute to the identification of essential components governing placental development. We further discuss the relevance of these components in the context of genetic manipulation experiments. In conclusion, the intelligent combination of genetic and genomic approaches will substantially accelerate the progress in identifying the key molecular pathways of placental development.  相似文献
4.
Interspecific hybridization in the rodent genera Peromyscus and Mus results in abnormal placentation. In the Peromyscus interspecies hybrids, abnormal allelic interaction between an X-linked locus and the imprinted paternally expressed Peg3 locus was shown to cause the placental defects. In addition, loss-of-imprinting (LOI) of Peg3 was positively correlated with increased placental size. As in extreme cases this placental dysplasia constitutes a post-zygotic barrier against interspecies hybridization, this finding was the first direct proof that imprinted genes may be important in speciation and thus in evolution. In the Mus interspecies hybrids, a strong role of an X-linked locus in placental dysplasia has also been detected. However, here we show by backcross and allele specific expression analyses that neither LOI of Peg3 nor abnormal interactions between Peg3 and an X-linked locus are involved in generating placental dysplasia in Mus hybrids, although the placental phenotypes observed in the two genera seem to be identical. In contrast to this, another dysgenesis effect common to Peromyscus and Mus hybrids, altered foetal growth, is caused at least in part by the same X-chromosomal regions in both genera. These findings first underline the strong involvement of the X-chromosome in the genetics of speciation. Secondly, they indicate that disruption of epigenetic states, such as LOI, at specific loci may be involved in hybrid dysgenesis effects in one group, but not in another. Thus, we conclude that even in closely related groups divergent molecular mechanisms may be involved in the production of phenotypically similar post-zygotic barriers against hybridization.  相似文献
5.
It has been shown previously that abnormal placental growth, i.e., hyper- and hypoplasia, occurs in crosses and backcrosses between different mouse (Mus) species. A locus that contributes to this abnormal development has been mapped to the X chromosome. Unexpectedly, an influence of fetal sex on placental development has been observed, in that placentas attached to male fetuses tended to exhibit a more pronounced phenotype than placentas attached to females. Here, we have analyzed this sex dependence in more detail. Our results show that differences between male and female placental weights are characteristic of interspecific matings and are not observed in intraspecific Mus musculus matings. The effect is retained in congenic lines that contain differing lengths of M. spretus-derived X chromosome. Expression of the X-linked gene Pgk1 from the maternal allele only and lack of overall activity of two paternally inherited X-linked transgenes indicate that reactivation or lack of inactivation of the paternal X chromosome in trophoblasts of interspecific hybrids is not a frequent occurrence. Thus, the difference between male and female placentas seems not to be caused by faulty preferential X-inactivation. Therefore, these data suggest that the sex difference of placental weights in interspecific hybrids is caused by interactions with the Y chromosome.  相似文献
6.
Trophoblast invasion is a critical process in development of most mammals that shares similarities with the invasive behavior of tumor cells. In the present investigation, a cDNA subtraction library was constructed between invasive trophoblast at day 8 of murine development and mature noninvasive placenta at day 18 of gestation. One of the differentially expressed clones, Epcs26, was mapped to the X chromosome and revealed no homology to any known gene. It was predominantly expressed in parietal endoderm, undifferentiated cells of the ectoplacental cone, and a few trophoblast giant cells. Another gene, designated Epcs50, was mapped to chromosome 19. It exhibited homologies to the mouse Mps1 gene and, like Mps1, may have a distant relationship to the lytic protein perforin. High expression was detected in parietal endoderm cells and in a subset of secondary trophoblast giant cells. Two sequences, Epcs24 and Epcs68, exhibited an extensive open reading frame that shared the common features of the cysteine proteinase cathepsin L. Expression was confined to an undefined subpopulation of trophoblast giant cells. Both genes were mapped to chromosome 13 in close proximity to cathepsins L and J. The known functions of MPS1 and cathepsin L proteins indicate that the related proteins EPCS50, EPCS24, and EPCS68 participate in conferring invasive properties to the mouse trophoblast.  相似文献
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