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We have analyzed a panel of eight murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that depend on the V2 domain for binding to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120. Each MAb is sensitive to amino acid changes within V2, and some are affected by substitutions elsewhere. With one exception, the MAbs were not reactive with peptides from the V2 region, or only poorly so. Hence their ability to bind recombinant strain IIIB gp120 depended on the preservation of native structure. Three MAbs cross-reacted with strain RF gp120, but only one cross-reacted with MN gp120, and none bound SF-2 gp120. Four MAbs neutralized HIV-1 IIIB with various potencies, and the one able to bind MN gp120 neutralized that virus. Peptide serology indicated that antibodies cross-reactive with the HxB2 V1 and V2 regions are rarely present in HIV-1-positive sera, but the relatively conserved segment between the V1 and V2 loops was recognized by antibodies in a significant fraction of sera. Antibodies able to block the binding of V2 MAbs to IIIB or MN gp120 rarely exist in sera from HIV-1-infected humans; more common in these sera are antibodies that enhance the binding of V2 MAbs to gp120. This enhancement effect of HIV-1-positive sera can be mimicked by several human MAbs to different discontinuous gp120 epitopes. Soluble CD4 enhanced binding of one V2 MAb to oligomeric gp120 but not to monomeric gp120, perhaps by inducing conformational changes in the oligomer.  相似文献
2.
H Yoshiyama  H Mo  J P Moore    D D Ho 《Journal of virology》1994,68(2):974-978
The biologically cloned human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RF isolate is sensitive to neutralization by the murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) G3-4 to a conformationally sensitive epitope in the V2 loop of HIV-1 gp120. To assess how variation in the V2 amino acid sequence affects neutralization by this MAb, we cultured RF in the presence of G3-4 to select neutralization escape mutants. Three such mutants resistant to G3-4 neutralization were generated from three independent experiments. Solubilized gp120 from each of these escape mutants had a reduced affinity for G3-4 and also for two other V2 MAbs that were able to bind the wild-type RF gp120. PCR sequencing of the entire gp120 of the wild-type RF virus and the escape mutants showed that amino acid substitutions had occurred only at two positions, Y177H and L179P, both in V2. Experimental introduction of the Y177H substitution into the RF V2 loop in the context of the NL4-3 molecular clone re-created the G3-4-resistant phenotype. The L179P mutant was not viable. Thus, our findings confirm that the HIV-1 V2 loop contains the conformationally sensitive neutralization epitope recognized by G3-4 and that a single amino acid substitution within this region can result in escape variants that arise from immune selection pressure.  相似文献
3.
Recombinant Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with a selectable marker successfully infected the human gastric carcinoma cell lines AGS, MKN28, and MKN74. Following incubation in selective media, drug-resistant cell clones were isolated and proved to be infected with EBV. All gastric carcinoma cell clones were positive for EBNA 1 but negative for EBNA 2. LMP 1 expression was negative in most clones, but there were a few exceptions. Gastric carcinoma cells were negative for the EBV receptor CD21, and infection was not inhibited by pretreatment of cells with the anti-CD21 monoclonal antibody OKB7. The results indicate that gastric carcinoma cells are susceptible to EBV infection and that infection is mediated via a new receptor different from CD21.  相似文献
4.
N Shimizu  H Yoshiyama    K Takada 《Journal of virology》1996,70(10):7260-7263
We lack a host cell supporting an efficient lytic replication of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Recently, we isolated EBV-negative cell clones from the Akata cell line (referred as Akata- [N. Shimizu, A. Tanabe-Tochikura, Y. Kuroiwa, and K. Takada, J. Virol. 68:6069-6073, 1994). Since the parental Akata line is one of the highest EBV producers, we examined whether Akata- cells had become a good host for EBV propagation. The parental Akata cells have about 20 copies of EBV plasmid per cell. A drug resistance gene was inserted into one of them by homologous recombination. The resultant virus preparation, a mixture of wild-type and recombinant EBV, was used to infect Akata- cells. After incubation in the selective medium, drug-resistant Akata- cell clones were isolated and proved to be infected with recombinant EBV only. By treatment of the cells with antiimmunoglobulin antibodies, a large amount of recombinant EBV (i.e., more than 10 microg/1-liter culture) was produced. In contrast, three other B-lymphoma lines, BJAB, Ramos, and Louckes, were nonpermissive for virus replication. These results indicate that Akata- cells are suitable for propagation of recombinant EBV clonally, which becomes a powerful tool for determining EBV genetics and which makes it possible to use EBV as a vector for gene therapy.  相似文献
5.
H Yoshiyama  N Shimizu    K Takada 《The EMBO journal》1995,14(15):3706-3711
The growth transforming potential of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) for Burkitt's lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma is now extended to other neoplasia, such as Hodgkin's disease, peripheral T-cell tumor and gastric cancer. We have generated an EBV recombinant with a selectable marker at the viral thymidine kinase locus. Recombinant EBV was successfully infected into a human T-cell line, MT-2. Following incubation in the selective medium, drug resistant MT-2 cell clones were isolated and proved to be infected with recombinant EBV. EBV-infected MT-2 cell clones expressed EBNA 1 and LMP 1 and very little of EBNA 2, showing the BamHI F promoter-driven latency II form of infection, which is seen in non-B-cell tumors. This is the first report of in vitro generation of latency II type EBV infection. The present system of persistent EBV infection in T cells should be a good model for investigating the pathogenic role of EBV in non-B-cell tumors.  相似文献
6.
5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors in the central nervous system have been implicated in the control of micturition. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of a selective 5-HT1A-receptor antagonist [N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-(2-pyridinyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide trihydrochloride (WAY100635)] on the micturition-reflex pathway in urethane-anesthetized female Wistar rats. Rhythmic isovolumetric bladder contractions evoked by bladder distension were abolished by 0.3- to 3-mg/kg iv or 30- to 100-microg intrathecal (it) administration of WAY100635 in a dose-dependent manner for periods of 3-15 min. Intrathecal injection of WAY100635 was effective only if injected at the L6-S1 spinal cord level, but not at the thoracic or cervical cord levels. WAY100635 (30-100 microg it) significantly reduced the amplitude of bladder contractions evoked by electrical stimulation of the pontine micturition center. However, the field potentials in the rostral pons evoked by electrical stimulation of pelvic nerve were not affected by intrathecal or intravenous injection of WAY100635. These results suggest that 5-HT1A receptors at the L6-S1 level of the spinal cord have an important role in the tonic control of the descending limb of the micturition-reflex pathway in the rat.  相似文献
7.
The rate of multinucleated giant cell formation by the fusion of HIV chronically infected human T-cells (MOLT-4/HIV) and HIV uninfected MOLT-4 cells was examined under various pH conditions. The number of giant cells formed under the different pH conditions was quantitatively monitored by "MULTISIZER". The rate of giant cell formation was significantly less at the pH lower than 6 but not influenced at higher pH. Plaque assay under various pH conditions revealed that inhibition of giant-cell formation at lower pH was not due to the influence over the recognition between gp120 of HIV and CD4 molecules.  相似文献
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