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Activation of mouse genes in transformed cells   总被引:45,自引:0,他引:45  
M R Scott  K H Westphal  P W Rigby 《Cell》1983,34(2):557-567
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An enhancer/locus control region is not sufficient to open chromatin.   总被引:25,自引:5,他引:20       下载免费PDF全文
To study the way in which an enhancer/locus control region (LCR) activates chromatin, we examined transgenic mice carrying various combinations of the chicken beta A-globin gene coding region, promoter, and 3' enhancer/LCR. We compared lines carrying only the coding region and enhancer R (E) and only the coding region and promoter (P) with those containing all three elements (PE). We have shown previously that all PE mice transcribe the transgene in a copy number-dependent manner while the P mice do not express their transgene. In the current study, we examined chromatin activation by monitoring formation of erythroid-specific hypersensitive sites at the promoter and enhancer. We found that all of the PE lines but none of the P lines show hypersensitivity. In contrast, only three of six E lines are hypersensitive (two strongly and one weakly), demonstrating position dependence of this transgene. The two E lines with strong hypersensitive sites were found also to have RNA complementary to the transgene, presumably starting from an adjacent adventitious mouse promoter. In all of these lines, we found a correlation between erythroid-specific hypersensitivity and erythroid-specific general DNase I sensitivity, an indicator of regional chromatin activation. The results support a mutual interaction model for the mechanism of chromatin opening by LCRs in which the enhancer/LCR and promoter must cooperate in order to generate open chromatin. The data are not consistent with a dominant enhancer model in which the enhancer/LCR can open chromatin autonomously.  相似文献
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Two major subclasses of simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen were separated by zone velocity sedimentation of crude extracts from productively infected cells. These subclasses, which have been shown to differ biologically and biochemically ( Fanning et al., 1981), sedimented at 5-6S and 14-16S. The amount of T antigen in each form was estimated by complement fixation and by immunoprecipitation of T antigen from extracts of cells chronically labeled with [35S]methionine. Each form of T antigen was tested for specific binding to end-labeled restriction fragments of SV40 DNA using an immunoprecipitation assay. The 5-6S and 14-16S forms of T antigen both bound specifically to DNA sequences in the SV40 HindIII C fragment. The sequences required for binding both forms were localized in the same 35-bp region of the origin. However, significant differences in binding activity and affinity for specific and nonspecific DNA were demonstrated. These properties suggest that T antigen subclasses may serve different functions in the lytically infected cell.  相似文献
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