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1.
The complete nucleotide sequences of the genomes of the type 2 ( P712 , Ch, 2ab ) and type 3 (Leon 12a1b ) poliovirus vaccine strains were determined. Comparison of the sequences with the previously established genome sequence of type 1 (LS-c, 2ab ) poliovirus vaccine strain revealed that 71% of the nucleotides in the genome RNAs were common, that the 5' and 3' termini of the genomes were highly homologous, and that more than 80% of the nucleotide differences in the coding region occurred in the third letter position of in-phase codons, resulting in a low frequency of amino acid difference. These results strongly suggested that the serotypes of poliovirus derived from a common prototype. A comparison of the amino acid sequences predicted from the genome sequences showed highest variation in the capsid protein region, whereas non-structural proteins are highly conserved. Initiation of polyprotein synthesis occurs in all three strains more than 740 nucleotides downstream from the 5' end. An analysis of the non-coding region suggests that small peptides that could potentially originate from this region are conserved. The amino acid sequences immediately surrounding the cleavage signals, however, show a higher than average degree of variation. The analysis of the amino acid sequences of the capsid protein VP1 of all serotypes has led to the prediction of potential antigenic sites on the virion involved in neutralization.  相似文献
2.
The poliovirus polyprotein is cleaved at three different amino acid pairs. Viral polypeptide 3C is responsible for processing at the most common pair (glutamineglycine). We have found that a cDNA fragment encoding parts of the capsid protein region (P1) and the nonstructural protein region (P2), and including the P1-P2 processing site (tyrosine-glycine), can be expressed in E. coli. The translation product was correctly processed. Disruption of the coding sequence of 2A, a nonstructural polypeptide mapping carboxy-terminal to the tyrosine-glycine cleavage site, by linker mutagenesis or deletion, prevented processing. Deletion of the adjacent polypeptide 2B had no such effect. Antibodies against 2A specifically inhibited processing at the 3C'-3D' processing site (tyrosine-glycine) in vitro. We conclude that poliovirus encodes the second proteinase 2A, which processes the polyprotein at tyrosine-glycine cleavage sites.  相似文献
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Membranous crude replication complexes (CRC) were isolated from poliovirus-infected HeLa cells as recently described (N. Takeda, R.J. Kuhn, C.-F. Yang, T. Takegami, and E. Wimmer, J. Virol. 60:43-53, 1986). Viruses used to produce the CRC were poliovirus type 1 (Mahoney), [PV-1(M)], poliovirus type 1 (Sabin) [PV-1(S)], and four in vitro recombinants that were constructed from infectious cDNA clones. RNA synthesis in CRC was studied. No end-linked, full-length double-stranded poliovirus RNA was detected in CRC regardless of whether nonionic detergent (Nonidet P-40) was added prior to incubation. Synthesis of VPg-pU and VPg-pUpU, two nucleotidyl proteins presumed to be involved in the initiation of RNA synthesis, was slower at 30 degrees C in CRC induced by PV-1(S) than by PV-1(M). This observation was used to design a pulse-chase experiment whose result suggested that synthesis of VPg-pUpU occurred by uridylylation of VPg-pU. Synthesis of VPg-pU(pU) was thermosensitive in CRC induced by PV-1(S). With CRC of recombinant viruses, the thermosensitive block covaried to nucleotide substitutions in PV-1(S) that mapped to the virus-induced RNA polymerase 3Dpol. We conclude that plus-stranded RNA synthesis in CRC does not proceed via hairpin structures. The results of VPg-pU----VPg-pUpU synthesis are consistent with a model in which VPg-pU is the primer of RNA synthesis mediated by 3Dpol. The data suggest that uridylylation of VPg or a precursor thereof may be catalyzed by 3Dpol itself, a mechanism resembling events occurring in adenovirus DNA replication.  相似文献
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We have developed a simple procedure to purify a DNA-membrane complex from Bacillus subtilis by using a combination of centrifugation and electrophoresis. Several unique proteins were detected in the purified complex.  相似文献
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The effects of 17beta-estradiol (E) and/or progesterone (P) on glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) expression in the adipose tissue and skeletal muscle of ovariectomized female rats were studied. The Sprague-Dawley rats received daily subcutaneous injections of various doses of E and/or P for 7 days (n=5-6 per dose). The expression of GLUT4 mRNA was assessed by performing ribonuclease protection assays. GLUT4 protein levels were assessed by Western blotting assays. The adipose tissue levels of GLUT4 mRNA were reduced by the administration of 50 microg E, which resulted in unphysiologically high serum E concentrations. Although the GLUT4 mRNA levels did not change after the administration of 10 microg E or 5 mg P, they were reduced significantly to approximately half the control group level by the administration of both hormones (p <0.01). The skeletal muscle GLUT4 mRNA levels were not changed significantly by hormone treatment. These findings suggest that E and P may be involved in the regulation of GLUT4 mRNA expression in adipose tissue.  相似文献
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A specific fraction of avian oviduct chromosomal proteins can be reannealed to pure avian DNA to reconstitute nativelike specific nuclear binding sites (acceptor sites) for the oviduct progesterone receptor (PR). These specific nuclear binding sites represent the difference between the binding to the reconstituted NAP and that to pure DNA. The specific fraction of chromatin protein which contains the acceptor activity, fraction CP-3, is very tightly bound to hen DNA in a complex termed nucleoacidic protein (NAP). Removal of the CP-3 fraction from NAP results in a loss of specific PR binding sites. Resins containing chromatin adsorbed to hydroxylapatite are used as a rapid method to isolate the CP-3 fraction. Reconstitution of the CP-3 fraction to DNA by the described method involving a regressing gradient of 6-0 M guanidine hydrochloride (Gdn-HCl) results in a reconstituted NAP which displays specific PR binding sites identical with those in native (undissociated) NAP and whole chromatin. Optimal conditions and potential problems for reconstituting these nucleoproteins are described. Only partially purified receptor preparations were used in these cell-free binding analyses since they have been shown to bind with similar properties and patterns as the nuclear binding in vivo. Therefore, the binding of PR to the reconstituted NAPs was demonstrated to be receptor dependent, saturable, and of high affinity. Further, the pattern of binding to the reconstituted sites mimics those which are observed in vivo. Thus, nonfunctional receptors that cannot translocate and bind to the nuclear acceptor sites in vivo also failed to bind to the acceptor sites on the reconstituted NAPs generated by the acceptor proteins. In contrast, the binding to pure DNA does not reflect these receptor differences in receptor bindings. Specific binding of PR to reconstituted NAP can be reversed by again removing the protein fraction. Moreover, the specific binding can be destroyed by proteases and protected by protease inhibitors, indicating that acceptor activity is proteinaceous in nature. The reconstitution of the activity is both a concentration-dependent and time-dependent process. During the reconstitution, acceptor activity appears to reconstitute on the DNA when the Gdn-HCl concentration reaches 2.0 M. By use of the reconstitution method as an assay for acceptor activity, the activity in the CP-3 fraction was shown by molecular sieve chromatography to elute in a relatively broad molecular weight range between 13 000 and 25 000. The activity also focuses in isoelectric focusing resins with apparent pI's of 5.2 and 6.4.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)  相似文献
9.
Deterioration in the quality of mammalian oocytes during the metaphase-II arrest period is well known as "oocyte aging." Oocytes in which aging has occurred are called aged oocytes, and these oocytes show enhanced activation and higher fragmentation rates after parthenogenetic activation. Previously we showed that porcine aged oocytes had low maturation/M-phase promoting factor (MPF) activity, and we suggested that this low MPF activity contributed at least in part to the aging phenomena. In the present study, we examined the relationship between MPF activity and these aging phenomena by artificially regulating MPF activity in porcine metaphase-II-arrested oocytes. Since we have shown recently that aged porcine oocytes contain abundant phosphorylated inactive MPF, so-called pre-MPF, we used vanadate and caffeine, which affect the phosphorylation status of MPF, to regulate MPF activity. Incubation of 48-h-matured oocytes with vanadate for 1 h increased the phosphorylation of MPF and decreased MPF activity. The parthenogenetic activation and fragmentation rates were significantly increased compared with those of control oocytes. Conversely, treatment of 72-h-cultured aged oocytes with caffeine (last 10 h of culture) decreased the level of pre-MPF and elevated MPF activity. These oocytes revealed significantly lower parthenogenetic activation rates and a lower percentage of fragmentation than did untreated aged oocytes. These results indicate that not only the increased ability for parthenogenetic activation but also the increased fragmentation rate observed in porcine aged oocytes may be attributable in part to the gradual decrease in MPF activity during prolonged culture. Control of MPF phosphorylation with these agents may allow for some degree of manipulation of oocyte aging.  相似文献
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