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1.
W Lin  T Hata    H Kasamatsu 《Journal of virology》1984,50(2):363-371
The amounts of simian virus 40 structural polypeptides Vp1, Vp2, and Vp3 in different subcellular fractions at various times after lytic infection were determined by a quantitative immunoblotting procedure. Simian virus 40-infected cells were lysed with a buffer containing Nonidet P-40 to yield a soluble fraction. The Nonidet P-40-insoluble fraction was further fractionated in the presence of deoxycholate and Tween 40 to yield a soluble fraction (cytoskeletal) and an insoluble fraction (Nuc), which is primarily cell nuclei. At 33 h postinfection, the majority of viral structural proteins was found in the cell nucleus, whereas, at 48 to 65 h postinfection, Vp1 was distributed evenly among all cell fractions and Vp2 and Vp3 were found predominantly in the cytoskeletal and Nuc fractions. Thus, not all of the viral polypeptides synthesized in the cytoplasm migrated into the cell nucleus. Throughout infection, the molar ratio (Vp3/Vp2) was rather constant in all subcellular fractions, indicating that the synthesis or processing or both of Vp2 and Vp3 are coordinately regulated. The molar ratio of Vp1/(Vp2 + Vp3) varied among the fractions. The Vp1/(Vp2 + Vp3) molar ratio in the soluble fraction varied during the course of infection; however, constant ratios were maintained in the cytoskeletal and Nuc fractions. Thus, the mechanism which controls the movement of Vp1 to different compartments of the cell appears to be different from that of Vp2 and Vp3. The Vp1/(Vp2 + Vp3) value in the Nuc fraction was similar to the ratio found in virus particles. The constant molar distribution of Vp1, Vp2, and Vp3 in the Nuc fraction throughout infection suggests that there is a specific mechanism which regulates the transport of viral structural proteins. These results support the hypothesis that the structural proteins of simian virus 40 are transported into the cell nucleus in precise proportions.  相似文献
2.
On the electrotransfer of polypeptides from gels to nitrocellulose membranes   总被引:14,自引:0,他引:14  
The conditions which affect the elution of polypeptides from polyacrylamide gels by electrophoresis and polypeptide-nitrocellulose interactions have been studied. The rate of elution of polypeptides from a 15% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel is dependent on the molecular weight of the individual polypeptides, which is in agreement with the results of W. N. Burnette (Anal. Biochem. 112, 195 (1981)). We also observed that current density affects the rate of elution. Polypeptides smaller than 20,000 daltons pass through pores of 0.45 microns, but not through the pores of 0.1-microns nitrocellulose membranes during electrophoresis. The nonionic detergent NP-40 inhibits the binding of polypeptides to nitrocellulose and removes prebound polypeptides from the membranes. Amido black and Coomassie blue staining and destaining processes do not remove the bound polypeptides from the membranes, but may affect the antigenicity of polypeptides. Polypeptides immobilized on nitrocellulose can be stored at -70 degrees C for future use.  相似文献
3.
Unidirectionality of replication in mouse mitochondrial DNA   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11  
4.
Structural proteins of simian virus 40 (SV40), Vp2 and Vp3 (Vp2/3) and Vp1, carry individual nuclear targeting signals, Vp3(198-206) (Vp2(316-324) and Vp1(1-8), respectively, which are encoded in different reading frames of an overlapping region of the genome. How signals coordinate nuclear targeting during virion morphogenesis was examined by using SV40 variants in which there is only one structural gene for Vp1 or Vp2/3, nuclear targeting-defective mutants thereof, Vp2/3(202T) and Vp1 delta N5, or nonoverlapping SV40 variants in which the genes for Vp1 and Vp2/3 are separated, and mutant derivatives of the gene carrying either one or both mutations. Nuclear targeting was assessed immunocytochemically following nuclear microinjection of the variant DNAs. When Vp2/3 and Vp1 mutants with defects in the nuclear targeting signals were expressed individually, the mutant proteins localized mostly to the cytoplasm. However, when mutant Vp2/3(202T) was coexpressed in the same cell along with wild-type Vp1, the mutant protein was effectively targeted to the nucleus. Likewise, the Vp1 delta N5 mutant protein was transported into the nucleus when wild-type Vp2/3 was expressed in the same cells. These results suggest that while Vp1 and Vp2/3 have independent nuclear targeting signals, additional signals, such as those defining protein-protein interactions, play a concerted role in nuclear localization along with the nuclear targeting signals of the individual proteins.  相似文献
5.
Role of nuclear pore complex in simian virus 40 nuclear targeting.   总被引:9,自引:2,他引:7       下载免费PDF全文
Cytoplasmically injected simian virus 40 (SV40) virions enter the nucleus through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) and can express large T antigen shortly thereafter (J. Clever, M. Yamada, and H. Kasamatsu, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:7333-7337, 1991). The nuclear import of the protein components of introduced SV40 was reversibly arrested by chilling and energy depletion, corroborating our previous observation that the nuclear entry of injected SV40 is blocked in the presence of wheat germ agglutinin and an antinucleoporin monoclonal antibody (mAb414), general inhibitors of NPC-mediated import. The nuclear accumulation of virion protein components and large T antigen in nonpermissive NIH 3T3 cells was similar to that in the permissive host, indicating that the ability to use NPCs as a route of nuclear entry appears to be a general property of the injected virus. Injected virions were capable of completing their lytic cycle and forming plaques in permissive cells. During the early phase of SV40 infection, the cytoplasmic injection of mAb414 effectively blocked nuclear T-antigen accumulation for up to 8 h of infection but had very little effect after 12 h of infection. The time-dependent interference with nuclear T-antigen accumulation by the antinucleoporin antibody is consistent with the hypothesis that the infecting virions enter the nucleus through NPCs. The interference study also suggests that the early phase of infection consists of at least two steps: a step for virion cell entry and intracytoplasmic trafficking and a step for virion nuclear entry followed by large-T-antigen gene expression and subsequent nuclear localization of the gene product. Virions were visualized as electron-dense particles in ultrathin sections of samples in which transport was permitted or arrested. In the former cells, electron-dense particles were predominantly observed in the nucleus. The virions were distributed randomly and nonuniformly in the nucleoplasm but were not observed in heterochromatin or in nucleoli. In the latter cells, the electron-dense particles were seen intersecting the nuclear envelope, near the inner nuclear membrane, and in NPCs. In tangential cross sections of NPCs, which appeared as donut-shaped structures, a spherical electron-dense particle was observed in the center of the structure. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that NPCs were selectively decorated with 5-nm colloidal gold particles-anti-Vp1 immunoglobulin G at the cytoplasmic entrance to and in NPCs, confirming that the morphologically observed electron-dense particles in NPCs contain the viral structural protein. These results support the hypothesis that the nuclear import of SV40 is catalyzed through NPCs by an active transport mechanism that is similar to that of other karyophiles.  相似文献
6.
Simian virus 40 (SV 40) stimulated a host cell antigen in the centriolar region after infection of African green monkey kidney (AGMK) cells. The addition of puromycin and actinomycin D to cells infected with SV40 within 5 h after infection inhibited the stimulation of the host cell antigen, indicating that de novo protein and RNA syntheses that occurred within the first 5 h after infection were essential for the stimulation. Early viable deletion mutants of SV40 with deletions mapping between 0.54 and 0.59 map units on the SV40 genome, dl2000, dl2001, dl2003, dl2004, dl2005, dl2006, and dl2007, did not stimulate the centriolar antigen above the level of uninfected cells. This indicated that an intact, functional small-t protein was essential for the SV40-mediated stimulation of the host cell antigen. Our studies, using cells infected with nondefective adenovirus-SV40 hybrid viruses that lack the small-t gene region of SV40 (Ad2+ND1, Ad2+ND2, Ad2+ND3, Ad2+ND4, and Ad2+ND5), revealed that the lack of small-t gene function of SV40 could be complemented by a gene function of the adenovirus-SV40 hybrid viruses for the centriolar antigen stimulation. Thus, adenovirus 2 has a gene(s) that is analogous to the small-t gene of SV40 for the stimulation of the host cell antigen in AGMK cells.  相似文献
7.
D A Dean  P P Li  L M Lee    H Kasamatsu 《Journal of virology》1995,69(2):1115-1121
Both a DNA-binding domain and a Vp1 interactive determinant have been mapped to the carboxy-terminal 40 residues of the simian virus 40 (SV40) minor capsid proteins, Vp2 and Vp3 (Vp2/3), with the last 13 residues being necessary for these activities. The role of this DNA-binding domain in SV40 morphogenesis and the ability to separate these two signals were investigated by mutagenesis and assessment of the activity and viability of the mutants. The carboxy-terminal 40 residues of Vp2/3 were expressed as a polyhistidine fusion protein, and five basic residues at the extreme carboxy terminus (Vp3 residues K226, R227, R228, R230, and R233) were mutagenized. The wild-type fusion protein bound DNA with a Kd of 3 x 10(-8) identical to that of the full-length Vp3. Mutant proteins containing either one to three or four amino acid substitutions bound DNA 4- to 7-fold or 20- to 30-fold less well, respectively, than the wild-type protein did. The most severe point mutants showed residual DNA binding similar to that of a truncated protein which lacks the entire 13 carboxy-terminal residues. All of the point mutants were able to interact with Vp1, indicating that the two signals within this region are mediated by different residues. When the mutations were placed into the context of the viral DNA and introduced into cells, all the structural proteins were expressed and localized correctly. Not all, however, were viable: mutant genomes whose Vp2/3 bound DNA with intermediate affinities formed plaques just as well as wild-type SV40 DNA did, but three mutants showing greatly reduced DNA binding failed to form plaques at all. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that Vp2/3 plays an essential role in SV40 virion assembly in the nucleus.  相似文献
8.
African green monkey kidney cells infected by simian virus 40 were analyzed by immunofluorescence techniques for the nature and the time course of the appearance of viral polypeptides during infection. Reagents used in the study were anti-Vpl sera and affinity-purified anti-Vpl immunoglobulin G, anti-Vp3 sera, antivirus (anti-V) sera, and anti-tumor antigen sera. The results are summarized as follows. (i) Three types of staining, nuclear, perinuclear, and perinuclear accompanied by cytoplasmic staining, were observed in infected cells in reaction with anti-vpl antibody. In addition, a highly structured staining was observed at the periphery of nuclei of infected cells late in infection. (ii) In reaction with anti-Vp3 serum, the staining was confined within nuclei of cells throughout infection. (iii) Vp1 and Vp3 antigens seem to occupy different spacial regions of the nuclear area in cells. (iv) Vp1 and Vp3 antigens were expressed simultaneously during infection. (v) Centriolar staining observed early in infection paralleled the appearance of tumor (T-) antigen until 24 h after infection, after which time the frequency of positive centriolar staining decreased as infection progressed. (vi) T-antigen was first expressed at about 8 h after infection, and Vp1 and Vp3 antigens were first expressed at about 20 h after infection.  相似文献
9.
The nuclear localization signal of the major structural protein, Vp1, of simian virus 40 was further defined by mutagenesis. The targeting activity was examined in cells microinjected with SV-Vp1 variant viral DNAs bearing either an initiation codon mutation of the agnoprotein or mutations in the Vp1 coding sequence or microinjected with pSG5-Vp1 and pSG5-Vp1 mutant DNAs in which Vp1 or mutant Vp1 is expressed from simian virus 40 early promoter. The Vp1 nuclear localization signal functioned autonomously without agno-protein once the Vp1 protein was synthesized in the cytoplasm. The targeting activity was localized to the amino-terminal 19 residues. While replacement of cysteine 10 with glycine, alanine, or serine did not affect the activity, replacement of arginine 6 with glycine caused the cytoplasmic phenotype. When multiple mutations were introduced among residue 5, 6, 7, 16, 17, or 19, the targeting activity was found to reside in two clusters of basic residues, a cluster of lysine 5, arginine 6, and lysine 7 and a cluster of lysine 16, lysine 17, and lysine 19. The clusters are independently important for nuclear localization activity.  相似文献
10.
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