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1.
A rapid alkaline extraction procedure for screening recombinant plasmid DNA.   总被引:3200,自引:408,他引:2792       下载免费PDF全文
A procedure for extracting plasmid DNA from bacterial cells is described. The method is simple enough to permit the analysis by gel electrophoresis of 100 or more clones per day yet yields plasmid DNA which is pure enough to be digestible by restriction enzymes. The principle of the method is selective alkaline denaturation of high molecular weight chromosomal DNA while covalently closed circular DNA remains double-stranded. Adequate pH control is accomplished without using a pH meter. Upon neutralization, chromosomal DNA renatures to form an insoluble clot, leaving plasmid DNA in the supernatant. Large and small plasmid DNAs have been extracted by this method.  相似文献
2.
A preparative procedure for obtaining highly purified plasmid DNA from bacterial cells is described. The method is adapted from our earlier procedure, which gave partially purified plasmid in a form suitable for rapid screening of a large number of samples. In the present method, all detectable RNA, chromosomal DNA, and protein are removed without the use of enzymes, phenol extraction, dialysis, or equilibrium centrifugation. Binding of plasmid DNA to glass powder in the presence of 6 m sodium perchlorate is used for the final purification step.  相似文献
3.
The study of messenger RNA in mammalian cells by Northern analysis requires the extraction of intact RNA in pure form. Although a number of reliable techniques have been developed for the purpose, most are fairly complex, involving steps such as ultracentrifugation and multiple extractions with large volumes of phenol and chloroform. When the number of cell samples to be analyzed is large, these techniques can be unwieldy. I now describe an RNA purification procedure which is simple enough to allow handling of a large number of cultured cell samples. It uses safe and inexpensive reagents and produces a high yield of pure total cell RNA, essentially free of DNA and ribonuclease, suitable for Northern analysis. The procedure also allows extraction of intact RNA from human granulocytes, cells which are rich in ribonuclease and contain very low amounts of RNA.  相似文献
4.
Birnboim, H. C. (Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, N.Y.). Cellular site in Bacillus subtilis of a nuclease which preferentially degrades single-stranded nucleic acids. J. Bacteriol. 91:1004-1011. 1966.-A nuclease, identified by a marked preference for single-stranded nucleic acids, has been demonstrated in extracts of Bacillus subtilis. The enzyme was associated with the cell wall-membrane fraction of mechanically disrupted cells and was released from cells which had been converted to protoplasts by lysozyme. The nuclease activity prepared by the latter procedure was found to be activated and solubilized by treatment with trypsin. The enzyme had about 2% activity on native deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as compared with denatured DNA. By use of CsCl analytical density gradient ultracentrifugation, this preparation was shown to degrade denatured DNA selectively in mixtures of native and denatured DNA.  相似文献
5.
The Mutatect system is a mouse tumor line in which mutations at the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (Hprt) locus can be readily detected both in vitro and in vivo. We have previously shown that the nitric oxide-generating drugs, glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), can induce mutations that are readily detected in these cells. In the present report, we have tested the effect of glutathione depletion by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) on cytotoxicity and mutagenicity by these two drugs. Exposure for 24 h to either drug (123 microM GTN; 500 microM SNP) induced mutations with relatively little cytotoxicity. Pretreatment with 50 microM BSO for 24 h, and then removal at the time of GTN or SNP addition, enhanced cytotoxicity to a modest extent. However, mutagenicity induced by both GTN and SNP was largely abolished. BSO did not affect nitrite accumulation in the medium over a 24-h period, indicating no inhibition of bioactivation of GTN or SNP. Maintaining BSO in the medium for 24 h prior and throughout the period of exposure to GTN or SNP produced a similar effect on mutations. N-Acetylcysteine and oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate, drugs that are used to increase intracellular glutathione, also blocked mutations. We postulate that a product of the reaction between nitric oxide and intracellular glutathione, such as GSNO or some species derived from it, is promutagenic.  相似文献
6.
Cloned fragments of mouse DNA have been screened for the presence of long polypyrimidine/polypurine segments. The polypyrimidine portion of one such segment (about 200 nucleotides in length) has been isolated by acidic depurination of the entire cloned fragment and plasmid vector followed by selective precipitation and 5'-32P labeling. This polypyrimidine has been used to demonstrate a new procedure for sequencing. Covalent modification of thymine with a water-soluble carbodiimide, or cytosine with glutaric anhydride, at low levels blocked the action of snake venom exonuclease. After deblocking, separation of the products of digestion by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis yields a sequence ladder which can be used to determine the position of C and T residues as in other sequencing methods. A sequence of 72 residues adjacent to the 5' end has been established, consisting principally of the repeating tetranucleotide (CCTT)n. A low ratio of endonuclease to exonuclease is essential for application of this method to sequences of this size. Accordingly, a very sensitive modification of a fluorometric endonuclease assay was developed and used to optimize pH and Mg2+ conditions to favor exonuclease activity over the accompanying endonuclease activity. The results clearly indicate that long polypyrimidine tracts can be efficiently prepared and their sequences determined with this method using commercially available exonuclease preparations without additional purification.  相似文献
7.
Polypyrimidine . polypurine segments are regions of duplex DNA which contain a highly asymmetric distribution of pyrimidine and purine nucleotides. A polypyrimidine in single-stranded DNA can be detected by its ability to form a complex and poly(A, G) which will bind to hydroxyapatite. We tested DNA from a variety of organisms and found that most contained polypyrimidines. From the shape of the curve relating DNA size to percentage bound to hydroxyapatite, we conclude that polypyrimidine . polypurine segments occur widely in DNA from higher organisms, at intervals of 6000--8000 base pairs throughout the majority of the genome. Lower levels occur in DNA from yeast and Drosophila.  相似文献
8.
A method for the electrophoresis of intact bacteriophage T4D particles through polyacrylamide gels has been developed. It was found that phage particles will migrate through dilute polyacrylamide gels (less than 2.1%) in the presence of a low concentration of MgCl2. As few as 5 x 10(9) phage particles can be seen directly as a light-scattering band during the course of electrophoresis. The band can also be detected by scanning gels at 260 to 265 nm or by eluting viable phage particles from gel slices. A new mutant (eph1) has been identified on the basis of its decreased electrophoretic mobility compared with that of the wild type; mutant particles migrated 14% slower than the wild type particles at pH 8.3 and 35% slower at pH 5.0. The isoelectric points of both the wild type and eph1 mutant were found to be between pH 4.0 and 5.0. Particles of T4 with different head lengths were also studied. Petite particles (heads 20% shorter than normal) migrated at the same rate as normal-size particles. Giant particles, heterogenous with respect to head length (two to nine times normal), migrated faster than normal-size particles as a diffuse band. This diffuseness was due to separation within the band of particles having mobilities ranging from 8 to 35% faster than those of normal-size particles. These observations extend the useful range of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to include much larger particles than have previously been studied, including most viruses.  相似文献
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