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Comparison between wild-type and mutated glycoprotein hormone receptors (GPHRs), TSH receptor, FSH receptor, and LH-chorionic gonadotropin receptor is established to identify determinants involved in molecular activation mechanism. The basic aims of the current work are 1) the discrimination of receptor phenotypes according to the differences between activity states they represent, 2) the assignment of classified phenotypes to three-dimensional structural positions to reveal 3) functional-structural hot spots and 4) interrelations between determinants that are responsible for corresponding activity states. Because it is hard to survey the vast amount of pathogenic and site-directed mutations at GPHRs and to improve an almost isolated consideration of individual point mutations, we present a system for systematic and diversified sequence-structure-function analysis (http://www.fmp-berlin.de/ssfa). To combine all mutagenesis data into one set, we converted the functional data into unified scaled values. This at least enables their comparison in a rough classification manner. In this study we describe the compiled data set and a wide spectrum of functions for user-driven searches and classification of receptor functionalities such as cell surface expression, maximum of hormone binding capability, and basal as well as hormone-induced Galphas/Galphaq mediated cAMP/inositol phosphate accumulation. Complementary to known databases, our data set and bioinformatics tools allow functional and biochemical specificities to be linked with spatial features to reveal concealed structure-function relationships by a semiquantitative analysis. A comprehensive discrimination of specificities of pathogenic mutations and in vitro mutant phenotypes and their relation to signaling mechanisms of GPHRs demonstrates the utility of sequence-structure-function analysis. Moreover, new interrelations of determinants important for selective G protein-mediated activation of GPHRs are resumed.  相似文献
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The vertical stratification of two species-rich moth families (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae, Geometridae) was analysed in a lowland rain forest in Costa Rica. Moths were trapped with automatic 8 W ultraviolet light traps at three sites in the understorey and canopy of a primary forest at the La Selva Biological Station (10.4° N, 84.0° W). A total of 846 arctiid moths (148 species) and 946 geometrid moths (140 species) were analysed. Species richness and diversity of arctiid moths was significantly lower in the understorey than in the canopy (Fisher's alpha: 24 vs. 49) whereas geometrid moths showed an inverse pattern (Fisher's alpha: 44 vs. 27). This resulted in an overall increase in the proportion of conspicuously coloured species towards the canopy. Moth ensembles were clearly separated in multidimensional scaling ordinations, and differed significantly in their faunal composition and dominance between the strata. The available host plant data suggest that the flight height of moths was determined by larval resource availability. Examples include understorey flyers such as the geometrid genus Eois feeding on Piper, and canopy flyers such as the arctiid moth genera Aclytia, Macrocneme and Poliopastea which feed on lianas.  相似文献
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The availability of standard protocols to obtain DNA sequences has allowed the inference of phylogenetic Hypotheses for many taxa, including moths. We here have inferred a phylogeny using maximum‐Likelihood and Bayesian approaches for a species‐rich group of moths (Erebidae, Arctiinae), with strong emphasis on Neotropical genera collected in different field campaigns in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, eastern Amazon and southern Ecuador. A total of 277 species belonging to 246 genera were included in the analysis. Our main objectives were to shed light on the relationships between suprageneric groups, especially subtribes, and hypothesize colonization events in and out of the Neotropics. The monophyly of Arctiinae and its four tribes (Lithosiini, Amerilini, Syntomini and Arctiini) was recovered in the ML and Bayesian trees. Three Lithosiini subtribes previously found and two additional species groups were recovered monophyletic in both phylogenetic estimation methods. In Arctiini, the monophyly of Spilosomina and Arctiina was highly supported in the ML and Bayesian trees, but the monophyly of Ctenuchina and Echromiina was weakly supported in the ML tree and absent in the Bayesian tree; the remaining subtribes were paraphyletic and, in the case of Phageopterina, formed several species groups. The mapping of species occurrence in our ML tree suggests that Arctiinae have an Old World origin and that the Neotropical region was colonized at least six times independently. Our analysis also suggests that a number of species that occur in Neotropical and other zoogeographic regions may have originated in the Neotropics, although further taxon sampling is required to support this hypothesis. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a highly speciose group of tropical moths is well covered in a phylogeny, and it seems plausible that the results reported here may be extendable to other species‐rich tropical undersampled moth taxa.  相似文献
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