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1.
Development of an RFLP map in diploid alfalfa   总被引:18,自引:3,他引:15  
Summary We have developed a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) linkage map in diploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) to be used as a tool in alfalfa improvement programs. An F2 mapping population of 86 individuals was produced from a cross between a plant of the W2xiso population (M. sativa ssp. sativa) and a plant from USDA PI440501 (M. sativa ssp. coerulea). The current map contains 108 cDNA markers covering 467.5 centimorgans. The short length of the map is probably due to low recombination in this cross. Marker order may be maintained in other populations even though the distance between clones may change. About 50% of the mapped loci showed segregation distortion, mostly toward excess heterozygotes. This is circumstantial evidence supporting the maximum heterozygote theory which states that relative vigor is dependent on maximizing the number of loci with multiple alleles. The application of the map to tetraploid populations is discussed.  相似文献
2.
We developed genetic markers for three microsatellite loci in the tropical tree Symphonia globulifera and used them to examine the demographic genetic consequences of forest fragmentation. High levels of genetic variation were revealed in samples of adults, saplings, and seedlings. The more-variable loci exhibited less stability in allelic composition across sites and stages. The number of alleles per hectare (ha) of forest was similar when continuous forest plots were compared to plots from fragmented forest for all three stages. This pattern also held for the number of unique multilocus adult and sapling genotypes, but the number of unique seedling genotypes per ha of fragmented forest greatly exceeded expectations based on continuous forest data, probably due to the concentration of seeds into remnant forest patches by foraging bats. Significant inbreeding and genetic differentiation were most often associated with the fragmented forest and the seedlings. Finally, principal component analysis reaffirmed that a bottleneck, acting in concert with pre-existing genetic structure in the adults, had led to enhanced and rapid divergence in the seedlings following deforestation, a result that is of central interest for landscape management.  相似文献
3.
Summary A short, highly repeated, interspersed DNA sequence from rice was characterized using a combination of techniques and genetically mapped to rice chromosomes by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. A consensus sequence (GGC)n, where n varies from 13–16, for the repeated sequence family was deduced from sequence analysis. Southern blot analysis, restriction mapping of repeat element-containing genomic clones, and DNA sequence analysis indicated that the repeated sequence is interspersed in the rice genome, and is heterogeneous and divergent. About 200000 copies are present in the rice genome. Single copy sequences flanking the repeat element were used as RFLP markers to map individual repeat elements. Eleven such repeat elements were mapped to seven different chromosomes. The strategy for characterization of highly dispersed repeated DNA and its uses in genetic mapping, DNA fingerprinting, and evolutionary studies are discussed.  相似文献
4.
A recent approach to detecting genetic polymorphism involves the amplification of genomic DNA using single primers of arbitrary sequence. When separated electrophoretically in agarose gels, the amplification products give banding patterns that can be scored for genetic variation. The objective of this research was to apply these techniques to cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and related wild species to determine whether such an approach would be feasible for the construction of a genetic linkage map in peanut or for systematic studies of the genus. Two peanut cultivars, 25 unadapted germplasm lines of A. hypogaea, the wild allotetraploid progenitor of cultivated peanut (A. monticola), A. glabrata (a tetraploid species from section Rhizomatosae), and 29 diploid wild species of Arachis were evaluated for variability using primers of arbitrary sequence to amplify segments of genomic DNA. No variation in banding pattern was observed among the cultivars and germplasm lines of A. hypogaea, whereas the wild Arachis species were uniquely identified with most primers tested. Bands were scored (+/–) in the wild species and the PAUP computer program for phylogenetic analysis and the HyperRFLP program for genetic distance analysis were used to generate dendrograms showing genetic relationships among the diploid Arachis species evaluated. The two analyses produced nearly identical dendrograms of species relationships. In addition, approximately 100 F2 progeny from each of two interspecific crosses were evaluated for segregation of banding patterns. Although normal segregation was observed among the F2 progeny from both crosses, banding patterns were quite complex and undesirable for use in genetic mapping. The dominant behavior of the markers prevented the differentiation of heterozygotes from homozygotes with certainty, limiting the usefulness of arbitrary primer amplification products as markers in the construction of a genetic linkage map in peanut.  相似文献
5.
The cassava core collection was selected to represent, with minimum repetitiveness, the potential genetic diversity of the crop. The core (630 accessions) was chosen from the base collection (over 5500 accessions) on the basis of diversity of origin (country and geographic), morphology, isozyme patterns and specific agronomic criteria. To asses the genetic diversity of the core, 521 accessions were typed with four microsatellite loci. Allele diversity and frequency, and size variance of dinucleotide repeats (Rst statistic) were estimated. Microsatellite allele numbers and frequencies varied among countries: Colombia and Brazil had the largest number of different alleles across all loci. Mexico also had a high number, ranking fifth after Peru, Costa Rica and Venezuela (which tied). Unique alleles were present in accessions from Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, Venezuela and Paraguay. A small number (1.34%) of potential duplicates were identified through isozyme and AFLP profiles. Thus, the present results indicated that traditional markers have been highly effective at selecting unique genotypes for the core. Future selections of cassava germplasm sets can be aided by DNA-based markers to ensure genetically representative, non-redundant samples. This revised version was published online in June 2006 with corrections to the Cover Date.  相似文献
6.
Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were studied in fourteen accessions of CCDD genome allotetraploid wild rice species (Oryza latifolia, O. alta and O. grandiglumis). Fourteen nuclear RFLP markers previously mapped in AA genome-cultivated rice were used as probes. A phylogenetic tree, constructed by parsimony analysis based on RFLPs, grouped the accessions according to their geographic origin from Central or South America. Oryza alta, O. grandiglumis and one accession of O. latifolia grouped together as a subgroup, and our results suggested that the three taxa should be considered as populations of a single complex species. Duplicate loci, representing the two constituent genomes of the allotetraploid, were observed for most RFLP markers. By comparing RFLPs from the allotetraploids with those from a CC genome diploid wild species (O. officinalis), it was possible to detect RFLPs specific for both the CC and DD genomes of the allotetraploid. In inter-accession F2 populations, independent segregation of RFLP markers for CC and DD genomes was observed.  相似文献
7.
In asexual individuals of the green alga Volvox carteri, more than 99% of the cells are somatic cells which undergo synchronous programmed senescence and cell death every generation. Only a small number of reproductive cells survive to produce the next generation. The specific activity of pulse-labelled somatic cell protein preparations declines sharply during senescence, but no decline is seen in the nonageing reproductive cells. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis reveals that somatic and reproductive cells synthesize very different patterns of polypeptides. During the period when observable senescent changes are first evident in somatic cells, there is a change in the pattern of polypeptides being synthesized. Our results suggest that senescence in Volvox somatic cells is triggered by a change in the pattern of gene expression and are consistent with theories of programmed cell senescence.  相似文献
8.
Qiang Zhang  Gary Kochert 《Genetica》1997,101(3):145-152
Transposable elements similar to Tourist elements from maize were isolated from the rice genome. The elements were about 300 bp, exhibited short terminal inverted repeats (TIR), and appeared to show preferential insertion at TAA sites. Some rice Tourist elements seem to have recently transposed. Based on the sequences of cloned elements, two classes of rice Tourist elements have been identified. Members of these two classes apparently amplified independently at different times in the past. This revised version was published online in July 2006 with corrections to the Cover Date.  相似文献
9.
The purpose of this study was to construct a comparative RFLP map of an allotetraploid wild rice species, Oryza latifolia, and to study the relationship between the CCDD genome of O. latifolia and the AA genome of O. sativa. A set of RFLP markers, which had been previously mapped to the AA genome of cultivated rice, were used to construct the comparative map. Fifty-eight F2 progeny, which were derived from a single F1 plant, were used for segregation analysis. The comparative RFLP map contains 149 DNA markers, including 145 genomic DNA markers from cultivated rice, 3 cDNA markers from oat, and one known gene (waxy, from maize). Segregation patterns reflected the allotetraploid ancestry of O. latifolia, and the CC and DD genomes were readily distinguished by most probes tested. There is a high degree of conservation between the CCDD genome of O. latifolia and the AA genome of O. sativa based on our data, but some inversions and translocations were noted.  相似文献
10.
DNA microsatellites are ubiquitously present in eukaryotic genomes [30] and represent a vast source of highly informative markers [30, 33, 34, 2]. We describe in this article a (GGC)n microsatellite which is widely distributed in eukaryotic genomes. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques and DNA sequencing, we demonstrated for the first time in plant species that a (GGC)n microsatellite locus is moderately polymorphic. Six alleles are present at this locus in rice and length polymorphisms are caused by variation in the number of tandem GGC repeats. By scoring a backcross mapping population, we were able to demonstrate that this locus is stably inherited and does not link to any known RFLP markers on the rice RFLP map. Our results suggest that DNA microsatellites should be useful in plants for construction of genetic linkage maps, extension of the existing genetic linkage maps, linkage analysis of disease and pest resistance genes, and the study of population genetics.  相似文献
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