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1.
Six monoclonal antibodies have been isolated from mice immunized with synthetic peptide immunogens whose sequences are derived from that of the human c-myc gene product. Five of these antibodies precipitate p62c-myc from human cells, and three of these five also recognize the mouse c-myc gene product. None of the antibodies sees the chicken p110gag-myc protein. All six antibodies recognize immunoblotted p62c-myc. These reagents also provide the basis for an immunoblotting assay by which to quantitate p62c-myc in cells.  相似文献
2.
We have probed the structure of the C4 and V3 domains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 by immunochemical techniques. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) recognizing an exposed gp120 sequence, (E/K)VGKAMYAPP, in C4 were differentially sensitive to denaturation of gp120, implying a conformational component to some of the epitopes. The MAbs recognizing conformation-sensitive C4 structures failed to bind to a gp120 mutant with an alteration in the sequence of the V3 loop, and their binding to gp120 was inhibited by both V3 and C4 MAbs. This implies an interaction between the V3 and C4 regions of gp120, which is supported by the observation that the binding of some MAbs to the V3 loop was often enhanced by amino acid changes in an around the C4 region.  相似文献
3.
We isolated a series of monoclonal antibodies which were raised against a bacterially expressed protein, bp37v-myb, and coded for by part of the avian v-myb gene. These monoclonal antibodies recognized a range of antigenic specificities on bp37v-myb, and this was reflected in their differing specificities for the gene products of the v-myb, c-myb, and E26 viral oncogenes. One monoclonal antibody recognized, in addition to the v-myb and c-myb gene products, a conserved nuclear protein found in all tested cells. We describe the characterization of these monoclonal antibodies.  相似文献
4.
Antibodies to the scrapie protein decorate prion rods   总被引:15,自引:0,他引:15  
Scrapie is a degenerative, transmissible neurologic disease of sheep and goats which occurs in the absence of any detectable host immune response. Antibodies to the scrapie agent have been produced after immunization of rabbits with either scrapie prions or the prion protein, PrP 27-30, purified from infected hamster brain. Immunoreactivity of the antisera was assessed by dot and Western immunoblots with purified prions and PrP 27-30. Antibodies raised against infectious prions were more immunoreactive with native than denatured preparations, whereas those raised against PrP 27-30 were more reactive with denatured prion preparations. As determined by second antibody-colloidal gold, both antisera were found to decorate scrapie prion rods in purified preparations. Antibodies to cellular filamentous proteins failed to react with PrP 27-30 or the scrapie prion rods; conversely, antibodies to PrP 27-30 did not exhibit immunoreactivity with cellular filamentous proteins. The monospecificity of the rabbit antiserum raised against PrP 27-30 was established by its reactivity after affinity purification. The purified antibodies reacted with PrP 27-30 on Western blots and with the prion rods. Considerable evidence indicates that the scrapie rods are aggregates of infectious prions; the findings presented here provide an immunologic demonstration that PrP 27-30 is a structural component of the prion rods.  相似文献
5.
Peptides fused to the coat proteins of filamentous phages have found widespread applications in antigen display, the construction of antibody libraries, and biopanning. However, such systems are limited in terms of the size and number of the peptides that may be incorporated without compromising the fusion proteins' capacity to self-assemble. We describe here a system in which the molecules to be displayed are bound to pre-assembled polymers. The polymers are T4 capsids and polyheads (tubular capsid variants) and the display molecules are derivatives of the dispensable capsid protein SOC. In one implementation, SOC and its fusion derivatives are expressed at high levels in Escherichia coli, purified in high yield, and then bound in vitro to separately isolated polyheads. In the other, a positive selection vector forces integration of the modified soc gene into a soc-deleted T4 genome, leading to in vivo binding of the display protein to progeny virions. The system is demonstrated as applied to C-terminal fusions to SOC of (1) a tetrapeptide; (2) the 43-residue V3 loop domain of gp120, the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein; and (3) poliovirus VP1 capsid protein (312 residues). SOC-V3 displaying phage were highly antigenic in mice and produced antibodies reactive with native gp120. That the fusion protein binds correctly to the surface lattice was attested in averaged electron micrographs of polyheads. The SOC display system is capable of presenting up to approximately 10(3) copies per capsid and > 10(4) copies per polyhead of V3-sized domains. Phage displaying SOC-VP1 were isolated from a 1:10(6) mixture by two cycles of a simple biopanning procedure, indicating that proteins of at least 35 kDa may be accommodated.  相似文献
6.
We have used a combination of genetic and immunological techniques to explore how amino acid substitutions in the second conserved (C2) domain of gp120 from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) affect the conformation of the protein. It was reported previously (R. L. Willey, E. K. Ross, A. J. Buckler-White, T. S. Theodore, and M. A. Martin. J. Viol. 63:3595-3600, 1989) that an asparagine-glutamine (N/Q) substitution at C2 residue 267 of HIV-1 NL4/3 reduced virus infectivity, but that infectivity was restored by a compensatory amino acid change (serine-glutamine; S/N) at residue 128 in the C1 domain. Here we show that the 267 N/Q substitution causes the abnormal exposure of a segment of C1 spanning residues 80 to 120, which compromises the integrity of the CD4-binding site. The reversion substitution at residue 128 restores the normal conformation of the C1 domain and recreates a high-affinity CD4-binding site. The gp120 structural perturbation caused by changes in C2 extends also to the C5 domain, and we show by immunological analysis that there is a close association between areas of the C1 and C5 domains. This association might be important for forming a complex binding site for gp41 (E. Helseth, U. Olshevsky, C. Furman, and J. Sodroski. J. Virol. 65:2119-2123, 1991). Segments of the C1 and C2 domains are predicted to form amphipathic alpha helices. We suggest that these helices might be packed together in the core of the folded gp120 molecule, that the 267 N/Q substitution disrupts this interdomain association, and that the 128 S/N reversion substitution restores it.  相似文献
7.
The third variable (V3) domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) external membrane glycoprotein gp120 is of crucial importance in eliciting neutralizing antibodies in infected persons. Polyclonal (PAb) and monoclonal (MAb) antibodies directed against selected epitopes in the V3 domain are valuable tools for analysis of the involvement of such sequences in neutralization and for definition of the relation between amino acid variability and immunological cross-reactions. The aim of this study was to obtain such site-specific antibodies. By using synthetic peptides derived from the V3 domain, a group-specific neutralizing PAb, two high-affinity HIV-1 IIIB neutralizing MAb, and two nonneutralizing MAb were raised. A 15-amino-acid peptide overlapping the tip of the V3 domain of HIV-1 MN was used to produce a rabbit PAb (W0/07). This PAb inhibited syncytium formation induced by HIV-1 IIIB and four field isolates. A similar IIIB-derived peptide was used to generate two murine immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) MAb (IIIB-V3-13 and IIIB-V3-34). Pepscan analysis mapped the binding site of IIIB-V3-34 to the sequence IRIQRGPGR. The Kds of IIIB-V3-13 and IIIB-V3-34 for gp120 were 6.8 x 10(-11) and 1.6 x 10(-10) M, respectively. These MAb neutralized IIIB but not MN and inhibited syncytium formation induced by IIIB. They are applicable in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, immunocytochemistry, and flow cytometry. A peptide covering the left base of the V3 domain was used to generate two murine IgG1 MAb (IIIB-V3-21 and IIIB-V3-26). The binding site of IIIB-V3-21 was mapped to the sequence INCTRPN. These MAb did not neutralize HIV-1 and did not inhibit syncytium formation. This study supports the notion that HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies suitable for multiassay performance can be obtained with synthetic peptides and that high-affinity MAb can be generated. Such site-specific antibodies are useful reagents in the analysis of HIV-1 neutralization. In addition, the cross-neutralization of different viral strains by PAb generated through single-peptide immunization is directly relevant to vaccine development.  相似文献
8.
Despite recent advances in our understanding of T cell antigen receptor structure, relatively little is known about the role of this receptor in MHC-restricted antigen recognition. To study this problem, we have developed a panel of ABA-Tyr-reactive, I-Ak-restricted T cell clones that differ in their ability to recognize structural analogs of ABA-Tyr. Three fine specificity groups have been defined. In each group, ABA-Tyr elicited the strongest response of any of the antigens tested. Group I clones responded to ABA-conjugated hydroxyphenyl-ethanol (ABA-HPE). Group II clones responded to ABA-conjugated hydroxyphenyl-methanol (ABA-HPM) but not to ABA-HPE, and group III clones responded only to ABA-Tyr. These studies show that differences as small as a single methylene group can dramatically affect fine specificity. Because these clones are all I-Ak-restricted, it was possible to correlate receptor serology with fine specificity. To this end, monoclonal anti-clonotypes were made against clone 16-F2 from group I and used to study the relationship between fine specificity and clonotype expression. A panel of 15 T cell clones studied with four anti-clonotype antibodies showed a strict correlation between clonotype expression and fine specificity. Taken together, these data suggest that the structure recognized by the anti-clonotype antibodies is a determinant of receptor fine specificity.  相似文献
9.
In a previous report characterizing the arsonate (ABA)-specific plaque-forming cell (PFC) responses of A/J mice induced by ABA-KLH, two interesting characteristics of the idiotypic (Id) profile were noted: (1) an apparent Id selectivity in the isotype switch since the earliest appearing IgG PFC in the primary response were significantly more "cross-reactive Id" (CRI)-dominant than the IgM PFC population, and, (2) a temporal waning of CRI dominance with time among IgG PFC, from 75-100% CRI+ PFC to about 25-45% CRI+ PFC in secondary responses. Experiments were performed to determine whether these effects are largely attributable to T or to B cells. Mice were immunized with a T-independent (TI) form of ABA (ABA-Brucella abortus) and apparent Id selectivity was observed; the earliest IgG PFC averaged 75% CRI+ while IgM PFC were only 39% CRI+. Due to the TI nature of the Ag, this provides suggestive, but not conclusive, evidence that the Id asymmetry in the isotype switch may be attributable to the direct interaction of Ag with B cells. Other studies addressed the temporal shift in CRI dominance. First, it was found that preexposure of mice to either KLH or to ABA (on an irrelevant carrier) resulted in diminished CRI dominance in subsequent "primary" responses to ABA-KLH. Secondly, adoptive transfer experiments with B and T cells from virgin mice (Bv, Tv) or ABA-KLH-primed mice (Bp, Tp) showed that recipients of Bv + Tp or Bp + Tv generated anti-ABA PFC responses with intermediate CRI levels. The Tv cells had some preferential tendency to activate CRI+ clones in the Bp population. The results demonstrate that CRI levels are jointly determined by the immune status of both B and T cells. A simple model is offered which accounts for early Id dominance and its gradual decline and has as its central postulate the assumption that CRI+ B cells in the virgin ABA-specific repertoire have an affinity advantage over CRI- clones.  相似文献
10.
To study T cell idiotype expression at the functional level, we developed a hapten-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) system by which we avoid the complication of anti-hapten antibody and which is specific only for the immunizing hapten, and not for conjugate specific determinants. Immunization with ABA-Tyr and challenge with ABA diazonium induced footpad swelling with the characteristics of DTH. Anti-ABA antibodies did not contribute to this reaction, as they were undetectable in mice immunized with ABA-Tyr. Furthermore, this ABA-Tyr-specific DTH was under Ir gene control identical to that reported for ABA-Tyr-specific lymphocyte proliferation. All mouse strains tested responded to ABA-Tyr except those of the b haplotype across the entire Ia region. In contrast, contact sensitivity induced by ABA diazonium was not under apparent Ir gene control, probably reflecting 1) different specificities of the induced T cells and 2) the production of anti-ABA antibodies that contribute to the footpad swelling via an Arthus reaction. Having shown that ABA-Tyr can induce T cells mediating DTH, we then examined ABA-Tyr-reactive T cell clones, propagated in vitro, for their ability to mediate DTH. Such clones elicited a response identical to that seen with in vivo immunization with respect to dose dependency, I-Ak restriction, and antigen specificity.  相似文献
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