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1.
The putative role of nitric oxide in the neuropathogenesis of Borna disease was investigated by determining changes in the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA and constitutively expressed NOS (cNOS) mRNA in brains of Borna disease virus (BDV)-infected rats. iNOS mRNA was not detected in normal rat brain but was identified in BDV-infected brain at 14 days postinfection (p.i.), reaching maximum levels at 21 days p.i., when neurological signs and inflammatory reactions in the brain were also at a peak. cNOS mRNA was expressed in both normal brain and infected brain, increasing markedly at 17 days p.i. and reaching a peak at 21 days p.i. In situ hybridization analysis revealed iNOS mRNA in some, but not all, BDV-infected regions of the brain, particularly in the basolateral cortex and the hippocampus. iNOS-positive cells, as identified immunohistologically, were preferentially localized in perivascular areas of the hippocampus and in outer cortical layers. These iNOS-positive cells resembled monocytes/macrophages in morphology and distribution pattern but were significantly fewer. The correlation of iNOS and cNOS mRNA expression with the development of neurological disease, as well as the enhanced expression of iNOS within brain regions with inflammatory lesions, strongly suggests that NO may contribute to pathogenesis of Borna disease.  相似文献
2.
胎盘发生过程中的细胞凋亡   总被引:7,自引:1,他引:6  
细胞凋亡是一种正常的生理现象,在胚泡着床过程中,伴随有大量细胞凋亡。研究表明,胎盘发生过程中的细胞凋亡,对调控子宫内膜基质细胞的蜕膜化和滋养层细胞的浸润以形成胎盘具有重要意义;另外,由Fas/FasL系统介导的细胞凋亡可能与母体对胎儿的免疫耐受性有关。本文主要评述细胞凋亡的一般通路以及胎盘发生过程中细胞凋亡的调控。  相似文献
3.
Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris possesses a low level of beta-galactosidase and therefore is not able to grow and produce significant amounts of xanthan gum in a medium containing lactose as the sole carbon source. In this study, a beta-galactosidase expression plasmid was constructed by ligating an X. campestris phage phi LO promoter with pKM005, a ColE1 replicon containing Escherichia coli lacZY genes and the lpp ribosome-binding site. It was then inserted into an IncP1 broad-host-range plasmid, pLT, and subsequently transferred by conjugation to X. campestris 17, where it was stably maintained. The lacZ gene under the control of the phage promoter was expressed at a high level, enabling the cells to grow in a medium containing lactose. Production of xanthan gum in lactose or diluted whey by the engineered strain was evaluated, and it was found to produce as much xanthan gum in these substrates as the cells did in a medium containing glucose.  相似文献
4.
In situ hybridization and Northern blot analysis were used to examine expression of the immediate-early-response genes (IEGs) egr-1, junB, and c-fos, and the late response gene encoding enkephalin in the brains of rats infected intranasally with Borna disease virus (BDV) or rabies virus. In both Borna disease and rabies virus infections, a dramatic and specific induction of IEGs was detected in particular regions of the hippocampus and the cortex. Increased IEG mRNA expression overlapped with the characteristic expression patterns of BDV RNA and rabies virus RNA, although relative expression levels of viral RNA and IEG mRNA differed, particularly in the hippocampal formation. Furthermore, the temporal relationship between viral RNA synthesis and activation of IEG mRNA expression in BDV infection differed markedly from that in rabies virus infection, suggesting that IEG expression is upregulated by different mechanisms. Expression of proenkephalin (pENK) mRNA was also significantly increased in BDV infection, whereas in rabies virus infection, pENK mRNA levels and also the levels of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA were reduced at terminal stages of the disease, probably reflecting a generalized suppression of cellular protein synthesis due to massive production of rabies virus mRNA. The correlation between activated IEG mRNA expression and the strong increase in viral RNA raises the possibility that IEG products induce some phenotypic changes in neurons that render them more susceptible to viral replication.  相似文献
5.
Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris possesses a low level of beta-galactosidase and therefore is not able to grow and produce significant amounts of xanthan gum in a medium containing lactose as the sole carbon source. In this study, a beta-galactosidase expression plasmid was constructed by ligating an X. campestris phage phi LO promoter with pKM005, a ColE1 replicon containing Escherichia coli lacZY genes and the lpp ribosome-binding site. It was then inserted into an IncP1 broad-host-range plasmid, pLT, and subsequently transferred by conjugation to X. campestris 17, where it was stably maintained. The lacZ gene under the control of the phage promoter was expressed at a high level, enabling the cells to grow in a medium containing lactose. Production of xanthan gum in lactose or diluted whey by the engineered strain was evaluated, and it was found to produce as much xanthan gum in these substrates as the cells did in a medium containing glucose.  相似文献
6.
ATP and GTP have been compared as substrates for (Na+ + K+)-ATPase in Na+-activated hydrolysis, Na+-activated phosphorylation, and the E2K----E1K transition. Without added K+ the optimal Na+-activated hydrolysis rates in imidazole-HCl (pH 7.2) are equal, but are reached at different Na+ concentrations: 80 mM Na+ for GTP, 300 mM Na+ for ATP. The affinities of the substrates for the enzyme are widely different: Km for ATP 0.6 microM, for GTP 147 microM. The Mg-complexed nucleotides antagonize activation as well as inhibition by Na+, depending on the affinity and concentration of the substrate. The optimal 3-s phosphorylation levels in imidazole-HCl (pH 7.0) are equally high for the two substrates (3.6 nmol/mg protein). The Km value for ATP is 0.1-0.2 microM and for GTP it ranges from 50 to 170 microM, depending on the Na+ concentration. The affinity of Na+ for the enzyme in phosphorylation is lower with the lower affinity substrate: Km (Na+) is 1.1 mM with ATP and 3.6 mM with GTP. The GTP-phosphorylated intermediate exists, like the ATP-phosphorylated intermediate, in the E2P conformation. Addition of K+ increases the optimal hydrolytic activity 30-fold for ATP (at 100 mM Na+ + 10 mM K+) and 2-fold for GTP (at 100 mM Na+ + 0.16 mM K+). K+ greatly increases the Km values for both substrates (to 430 microM for ATP and 320 microM for GTP). Above 0.16 mM K+ inhibits GTP hydrolysis. GTP does not reverse the quenching effect of K+ on the fluorescence of the 5-iodoacetamidofluorescein-labeled enzyme. ATP fully reverses this effect, which represents the transition from E1K to E2K. Hence GTP is unable to drive the E2K----E1K transition.  相似文献
7.
Several functions have been attributed to protein binding within the 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) of mRNA, including mRNA localization, stability, and translational repression. Vimentin is an intermediate filament protein whose 3'untranslated sequence is highly conserved between species. In order to identify sequences that might play a role in vimentin mRNA function, we synthesized32P-labeled RNA from different regions of vimentin's 3'UTR and assayed for protein binding with HeLa extracts using band shift assays. Sequences required for binding are contained within a region 61-114 nucleotides downstream of the stop codon, a region which is highly conserved from Xenopus to man. As judged by competition assays, binding is specific. Solution probing studies of 32P-labeled RNA with various nucleases and lead support a complex stem and loop structure for this region. Finally, UV cross-linking of the RNA-protein complex identifies an RNA binding protein of 46 kDa. Fractionation of a HeLa extract on a sizing column suggests that in addition to the 46 kDa protein, larger complexes containing additional protein(s) can be identified. Vimentin mRNA has been shown to be localized to the perinuclear region of the cytoplasm, possibly at sites of intermediate filament assembly. To date, all sequences required for localization of various mRNAs have been confined to the 3'UTR. Therefore, we hypothesize that this region and associated protein(s) might be important for vimentin mRNA function such as in localization.  相似文献
8.
Apical and basal halves of 3 cm long apical segments of in vitro cultured juvenile, adult and rejuvenated Sequoia sempervirens shoots were analyzed for total and tyrosine phosphorylated proteins. The latter was detected by a phosphotyrosine specific antibody. Younger tissues, or the apical halves of shoot terminals, showed larger amounts of 36, 44, 46 kDa proteins and lesser amounts of 29 kDa proteins. These are proposed as age-related changes. Phase-related proteins were also evident. Adult tissues contained more of the 34 and 36 kDa proteins than juvenile and rejuvenated shoots. Western blotting with a phosphotyrosine specific antibody revealed more of 25, 39, and 54 kDa protein in the younger tissues. In addition, tyrosine phosphorylated proteins of 25 and 34 kDa were higher in the adult, than in juvenile or rejuvenated tissues. Our findings showed that protein tyrosine phosphorylation, or the signal transduction pathway, is involved in phase- and age-related processes.  相似文献
9.
10.
Complete sets of chromosome-specific painting probes, derived from flow-sorted chromosomes of human (HSA), Equus caballus (ECA) and Equus burchelli (EBU) were used to delineate conserved chromosomal segments between human and Equus burchelli, and among four equid species, E. przewalskii (EPR), E. caballus, E. burchelli and E. zebra hartmannae (EZH) by cross-species chromosome painting. Genome-wide comparative maps between these species have been established. Twenty-two human autosomal probes revealed 48 conserved segments in E. burchelli. The adjacent segment combinations HSA3/21, 7/16p, 16q/19q, 14/15, 12/22 and 4/8, presumed ancestral syntenies for all eutherian mammals, were also found conserved in E. burchelli. The comparative maps of equids allow for the unequivocal characterization of chromosomal rearrangements that differentiate the karyotypes of these equid species. The karyotypes of E. przewalskii and E. caballus differ by one Robertsonian translocation (ECA5 = EPR23 + EPR24); numerous Robertsonian translocations and tandem fusions and several inversions account for the karyotypic differences between the horses and zebras. Our results shed new light on the karyotypic evolution of Equidae.  相似文献
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