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Cloning and analysis of the Neurospora crassa gene for cytochrome c heme lyase   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11  
The cyt-2-1 mutant of Neurospora crassa is deficient in cytochromes aa3 and c and in cytochrome c heme lyase activity (Mitchell, M.B., Mitchell, H.K., and Tissieres, A. (1953) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 39, 606-613; Nargang, F.E., Drygas, M.E., Kwong, P.L., Nicholson, D.W., and Neupert, W. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 9388-9394). By rescue of the slow growth character of the cyt-2-1 mutant, we have cloned the cyt-2+ gene from a N. crassa genomic library using sib selection. Analysis of the DNA sequence of the cyt-2+ gene revealed an open reading frame of 346 amino acids that has homology to the yeast cytochrome c heme lyase. The open reading frame is interrupted by two short introns. Codon usage and Northern hybridization analysis suggest that the cyt-2 gene is expressed at low levels. The cyt-2-1 mutant allele was cloned from a partial cyt-2-1 gene bank using the wild-type gene as a probe. Sequence analysis of the mutant gene revealed a 2-base (CT) deletion that alters the reading frame for 21 codons before generating an early stop codon in the protein-coding sequence. It was previously suggested that the cyt-2-1 mutation inactivates one of two regulatory circuits controlling the production of cytochrome aa3. The finding that the cyt-2-1 mutation affects the coding sequence for cytochrome c heme lyase provides a direct explanation for the deficiency of cytochrome c in the mutant and suggests that the lack of cytochrome aa3 is a regulatory response to the deficiency of cytochrome c.  相似文献
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A Mayer  F E Nargang  W Neupert    R Lill 《The EMBO journal》1995,14(17):4204-4211
Recognition of targeting signals is a crucial step in protein sorting within the cell. So far, only a few components capable of deciphering targeting signals have been identified, and insights into the chemical nature of the interaction between the signals and their receptors are scarce. Using highly purified mitochondrial outer membrane vesicles, we demonstrate that MOM22 and MOM19, components of the protein import complex of the outer membrane, bind preproteins at the mitochondrial surface in a reversible fashion. Interaction specifically and directly occurs with the N-terminal presequence and is abolished after inactivation of either MOM22 or MOM19. Binding is salt sensitive, suggesting that recognition involves electrostatic forces between the positive charges of the presequence and the acidic cytosolic domain of MOM22. MOM19 and MOM22 can be cross-linked with high efficiency. We propose that the two proteins form a complex which functions as the presequence receptor at the mitochondrial surface and facilitates the movement of preproteins into the translocation pore.  相似文献
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Kinesin is a force-generating molecule that is thought to translocate organelles along microtubules, but its precise cellular function is still unclear. To determine the role of kinesin in vivo, we have generated a kinesin-deficient strain in the simple cell system Neurospora crassa. Null cells exhibit severe alterations in cell morphogenesis, notably hyphal extension, morphology and branching. Surprisingly, the movement of organelles visualized by video microscopy is hardly affected, but apical hyphae fail to establish a Spitzenkörper, an assemblage of secretory vesicles intimately linked to cell elongation and morphogenesis in Neurospora and other filamentous fungi. As cell morphogenesis depends on polarized secretion, our findings demonstrate that a step in the secretory pathway leading to cell shape determination and cell elongation cannot tolerate a loss of kinesin function. The defect is suggested to affect the transport of small, secretory vesicles to the site involved in protrusive activity, resulting in the uncoordinated insertion of new cell wall material over much of the cell surface. These observations have implications for the presumptive function of kinesin in more complex cell systems.  相似文献
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MOM22 is a component of the protein import complex of the mitochondrial outer membrane of Neurospora crassa. Using the newly developed procedure of 'sheltered disruption', we created a heterokaryotic strain harboring two nuclei, one with a null allele of the mom-22 gene and the other with a wild-type allele. Homokaryons bearing the mom-22 disruption could not be isolated, suggesting that mom-22 is an essential gene. The mutant nucleus can be forced to predominate in the heterokaryon through the use of specific nutritional and inhibitor resistance markers. Cultivation of the heterokaryon under conditions favoring the mutant nucleus resulted in selective depletion of MOM22. MOM22-depleted cells did not grow and contained mitochondria with an altered morphology and protein composition. Protein import into isolated, MOM22-depleted mitochondria was abolished for most precursor proteins destined for all subcompartments. In contrast, precursors of MOM19, MOM22 and MOM72 became inserted normally into the outer membrane, defining a novel MOM22-independent import pathway which remained intact in mutant mitochondria. Furthermore, the specific binding of the ADP/ATP carrier to the outer membrane was unaffected, but subsequent transport across the outer membrane did not occur. Our data show that MOM22 is an essential component of Neurospora cells specifically required for the biogenesis of mitochondria.  相似文献
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The nuclear cyt-2-1 mutant of Neurospora crassa is characterized by a gross deficiency of cytochrome c (Bertrand, H., and Collins, R. A. (1978) Mol. Gen. Genet. 166, 1-13). The mutant produces mRNA that can be translated into apocytochrome c in vitro. Apocytochrome c is also synthesized in vivo in cyt-2-1, but it is rapidly degraded and thus does not accumulate in the cytosol. Mitochondria from wild-type cells bind apocytochrome c made in vitro from either wild-type or cyt-2-1 mRNA and convert it to holocytochrome c. This conversion depends on the addition of heme by cytochrome c heme lyase and is coupled to translocation of cytochrome c into the intermembrane space. Mitochondria from the cyt-2-1 strain are deficient in the ability to bind apocytochrome c. They are also completely devoid of cytochrome c heme lyase activity. These defects explain the inability of the cyt-2-1 mutant to convert apocytochrome c to the holo form and to import it into mitochondria.  相似文献
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