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Measuring threat and selecting ??flagship?? species for conservation planning should ideally rely on ??dynamic?? criteria (i.e.: decreasing range and population sizes) which may not be available for most taxa and geographic regions. We address the question of what features of the organisms or of their geographic distributions lie behind selections of potentially threatened species when there is insufficient information on temporal trends. Focusing on Iberian butterflies, we evaluate the support for past and present lists of target species from the most easily quantifiable features of the species?? ranges and conspicuousness (size and visual apparency). Among the features tested, geographic rarity has the highest weight in all the species lists. However, the explanation is rather modest statistically, especially when the species selection is of a supra-regional nature (in this case European). Among the rarest species, those with geographic ranges concentrated in the study area (a) are comparatively few and (b) on average, have less restricted ranges than those whose geographic rarity results from their marginal occurrence in the study area. Finally, the total geographic coverage of the EU-threatened butterflies is relatively large in Iberia. As a consequence species-oriented conservation planning in this region may be rather unrealistic if only geographic rarity is emphasized, or if the levels of threat determined at the supra-regional (European) level are directly translated to the regional legislations. Thus we support the regionally hierarchical approach to conservation proposed by former authors.  相似文献
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In order to assess the phylogenetic structure of the springtail genus Palmanura, as well as to test the monophyly of the tribe Sensillanurini (Neanuridae: Neanurinae), a data matrix of morphological (chaetotactic and other) characters of members of this group was assembled and analysed in the light of Wagner parsimony. The data matrix included all the known members of the Neotropical genus Palmanura, plus representatives of Sensillanura and Americanura. Although not all the clades obtained were highly supported by bootstrap resampling, some structures were relatively constant under different approaches. Alternative analyses (unordered and ordered character states, rescaled weighting procedure) were applied. While alternative solutions were obtained, a number of structures were shared by the results irrespective of the method used. On this basis, the results suggest that some further reassessment is required to confirm formally the monophyly of the tribe Sensillanurini. The genera Palmanura and Americanura are mutually poly/paraphyletic; we thus suggest that Palmanura should be considered as a synonym of Americanura, although some character reassessment and more varied outgroup species may be necessary before a formal generic redefinition can be proposed. Finally, a comparison of the performance of the characters under Wagner parsimony analysis indicated that differences in the characters’ retention indexes are due not to the topological (tagmal) position of the traits involved, but to character coding: the characters describing quantitative features (generally numbers of setae) generally performed worse than other types of characters under parsimony. An updated list of the known members of the Sensillanurini (Collembola: Neanuridae: Neanurinae) is presented.
© The Willi Hennig Society 2009.  相似文献
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